29 Sep 2022
 | 29 Sep 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESurf.

Water level fluctuations drive bank instability in a hypertidal estuary

Andrea Gasparotto, Stephen E. Darby, Julian Leyland, and Paul A. Carling

Abstract. Hypertidal estuaries are very dynamic environments characterised by high tidal ranges (>6 m) that can experience rapid rates of bank retreat. Whilst a large body of work on the processes, rates, patterns and factors driving bank erosion has been undertaken in fluvial environments, the process mechanics affecting the stability of the banks with respect to mass failure in hypertidal settings are not well documented. In this study, the processes and trends leading to bank failure and consequent retreat in hypertidal estuaries are treated within the context of the Severn Estuary (UK) by employing a combination of numerical models and field-based observations. Our results highlight that the periodic fluctuations in water level associated with the hypertidal environment drive regular fluctuations in the hydrostatic pressure exerted on the incipient failure surfaces that range from a confinement pressure of 0 kPa (at low tide) to ~100 kPa (at high tide). However, the relatively low transmissivity of the fine-grained banks (that are typical of estuarine environments) results in low seepage inflow/outflow velocities (~3x10-10 m s-1), such that variations in positive pore water pressures within the saturated bank are smaller, ranging between about 10 kPa (at low tide) to ~43 kPa (at high tides). This imbalance in the resisting (hydrostatic confinement) versus driving (positive pore water pressures) forces thereby drives a frequent oscillation of bank stability between stable (at high tide) and unstable states (at low tide). This transition between stability and instability is found not only on a semidiurnal basis, but also on a longer timeframe. In the spring to neaps transitional period, banks experience the coexistence of high degrees of saturation due to the high spring tides and decreasing confinement pressures favoured by the still moderately high channel water levels. This transitional period creates conditions when failures are more likely to occur.

Andrea Gasparotto et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on esurf-2022-44', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Jan 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Andrea Gasparotto, 26 Jan 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on esurf-2022-44', Anonymous Referee #2, 25 Mar 2023

Andrea Gasparotto et al.

Andrea Gasparotto et al.


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Short summary
In this study the processes leading to bank failures in the hypertidal Severn Estuary are studied employing numerical models and field observations. Results highlight that the periodic fluctuations in water levels drive an imbalance in the resisting (hydrostatic pressure) versus driving (pore water pressures) forces causing a frequent oscillation of bank stability between stable (at high tide) and unstable states (at low tide) both on semidiurnal bases and in the spring-neaps transition.