Articles | Volume 4, issue 3
Research article 22 Sep 2016
Research article | 22 Sep 2016
Oxidation of sulfides and rapid weathering in recent landslides
Robert Emberson et al.
No articles found.
Claire Rault, Alexandra Robert, Odin Marc, Niels Hovius, and Patrick Meunier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 829–839,Short summary
Large earthquakes trigger thousands of landslides in the area of their epicentre. For three earthquake cases, we have determined the position of these landslides along hillslopes. These co-seismic landslides tend to cluster at ridge crests and slope toes. We show that crest clustering is specific to seismic triggering. But although co-seismic landslides locate higher in the landscape than rainfall-induced landslides, geological features strongly modulate their position along the hillslopes.
Odin Marc, Robert Behling, Christoff Andermann, Jens M. Turowski, Luc Illien, Sigrid Roessner, and Niels Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 107–128,Short summary
We mapped eight monsoon-related (> 100 m2) and large (> 0.1 km2) landslides in the Nepal Himalayas since 1970. Adding inventories of Holocene landslides, giant landslides (> 1 km3), and landslides from the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, we constrain the size–frequency distribution of monsoon- and earthquake-induced landslides. Both contribute ~50 % to a long-term (> 10 kyr) total erosion of ~2 mm yr-1, matching the long-term exhumation rate. Large landslides rarer than 10Be sampling time drive erosion.
Odin Marc, André Stumpf, Jean-Philippe Malet, Marielle Gosset, Taro Uchida, and Shou-Hao Chiang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 903–922,Short summary
Rainfall-induced landslides cause significant damage and fatality worldwide, but we have few datasets constraining the impact of individual storms. We present and analyze 8 landslide inventories, with >150 to >150 00 landslides, comprehensively representing the landslide population caused by 8 storms from Asia and the Americas. We found that the total storm rainfall is a major control on total landsliding, landslide size, and that storms trigger landslides on less steep slopes than earthquakes.
Anne Schöpa, Wei-An Chao, Bradley P. Lipovsky, Niels Hovius, Robert S. White, Robert G. Green, and Jens M. Turowski
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 467–485,Short summary
On 21 July 2014, a voluminous landslide entered the caldera lake at Askja, Iceland, and created tsunami waves inundating famous tourist spots. The high hazard potential of the site motivated our study in which we analysed seismic data and found a precursory tremor signal intensifying in the 30 min before the landslide. Our paper shows the potential of seismic monitoring techniques to detect precursory activity before a big landslide that could be used for an early-warning system.
Michael Dietze, Jens M. Turowski, Kristen L. Cook, and Niels Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 757–779,Short summary
Rockfall is an essential geomorphic process and a hazard in steep landscapes which is hard to constrain with traditional approaches. Seismic methods allow for the detection, location, characterisation and linking of events to triggers by lag times. This new technique reveals 49 rockfalls in 6 months with seasonally varying locations. Freeze–thaw action accounts for only 5 events, whereas 19 rockfalls were caused by rain with a 1 h peak lag time, and 17 events were due to diurnal thermal forcing.
Michael Dietze, Solmaz Mohadjer, Jens M. Turowski, Todd A. Ehlers, and Niels Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 653–668,Short summary
We use a seismometer network to detect and locate rockfalls, a key process shaping steep mountain landscapes. When tested against laser scan surveys, all seismically detected events could be located with an average deviation of 81 m. Seismic monitoring provides insight to the dynamics of individual rockfalls, which can be as small as 0.0053 m3. Thus, seismic methods provide unprecedented temporal, spatial and kinematic details about this important process.
Odin Marc, Patrick Meunier, and Niels Hovius
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1159–1175,Short summary
We present an analytical expression for the surface area of the region within which landslides induced by a given earthquake are distributed. The expression is based on seismological scaling laws. Without calibration the model predicts, within a factor of 2, up to 49 out of 83 cases reported in the literature and agrees with the smallest region around the fault containing 95 % of the total landslide area. This model may be used for hazard assessment based on early earthquake detection parameters.
Fabian Walter, Arnaud Burtin, Brian W. McArdell, Niels Hovius, Bianca Weder, and Jens M. Turowski
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 939–955,Short summary
Debris flows are naturally occuring mass motion events, which mobilize loose material in steep Alpine torrents. The destructive potential of debris flows is well known and demands early warning. Here we apply the amplitude source location (ASL) method to seismic ground vibrations induced by a debris flow event in Switzerland. The method efficiently detects the initiation of the event and traces its front propagation down the torrent channel.
Arnaud Burtin, Niels Hovius, and Jens M. Turowski
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 285–307,
O. Marc and N. Hovius
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 723–733,Short summary
We present how amalgamation (i.e. the mapping of several adjacent landslides as a single polygon) can distort results derived from landslide mapping. Errors on the total landslide volume and power-law exponent of the area–frequency distribution, resulting from amalgamation, may be up to 200 and 50%, respectively. We present an algorithm based on image and DEM analysis, for automatic identification of amalgamated polygons, allowing one to check and correct landslide inventories faster.
S.-J. Kao, R. G. Hilton, K. Selvaraj, M. Dai, F. Zehetner, J.-C. Huang, S.-C. Hsu, R. Sparkes, J. T. Liu, T.-Y. Lee, J.-Y. T. Yang, A. Galy, X. Xu, and N. Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 127–139,
A. Burtin, N. Hovius, B. W. McArdell, J. M. Turowski, and J. Vergne
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 21–33,
R. G. Hilton, A. Galy, A. J. West, N. Hovius, and G. G. Roberts
Biogeosciences, 10, 1693–1705,
Related subject area
Cross-cutting themes: Coupling of chemical, physical and biological processesImpact of grain size and rock composition on simulated rock weatheringStorm-triggered landslides in the Peruvian Andes and implications for topography, carbon cycles, and biodiversityLinking mineralisation process and sedimentary product in terrestrial carbonates using a solution thermodynamic approachField investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments
Yoni Israeli and Simon Emmanuel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 319–327,Short summary
We used a numerical model to assess the effect of grain size and rock composition on chemical weathering and grain detachment. Our simulations showed that grain detachment represents more than a third of the overall weathering rate. We also found that as grain size increases, the weathering rate initially decreases; however, beyond a critical size, the rate became approximately constant. Our results could help predict the sometimes complex relationship between rock type and weathering rate.
K. E. Clark, A. J. West, R. G. Hilton, G. P. Asner, C. A. Quesada, M. R. Silman, S. S. Saatchi, W. Farfan-Rios, R. E. Martin, A. B. Horwath, K. Halladay, M. New, and Y. Malhi
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 47–70,Short summary
The key findings of this paper are that landslides in the eastern Andes of Peru in the Kosñipata Valley rapidly turn over the landscape in ~1320 years, with a rate of 0.076% yr-1. Additionally, landslides were concentrated at lower elevations, due to an intense storm in 2010 accounting for ~1/4 of the total landslide area over the 25-year remote sensing study. Valley-wide carbon stocks were determined, and we estimate that 26 tC km-2 yr-1 of soil and biomass are stripped by landslides.
M. Rogerson, H. M. Pedley, A. Kelham, and J. D Wadhawan
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 197–216,
D. M. Krzeminska, T. A. Bogaard, T.-H. Debieche, F. Cervi, V. Marc, and J.-P. Malet
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 181–195,
Andermann, C., Longuevergne, L., Bonnet, S., Crave, A., Davy, P., and Gloaguen, R.: Impact of transient groundwater storage on the discharge of Himalayan rivers, Nat. Geosci., 5, 127–132, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1356, 2012.
Berner, R. A. and Kothavala, Z.: GEOCARB III; a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time, Am. J. Sci., 301, 182–204, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.294.1.56, 2001.
Bickle, M. J., Tipper, E. T., Galy, A., Chapman, H., and Harris, N.: On Discrimination Between Carbonate and Silicate Inputs to Himalayan Rivers, Am. J. Sci., 315, 120–166, https://doi.org/10.2475/02.2015.02, 2015.
Blöthe, J. H. and Korup, O.: Millennial lag times in the Himalayan sediment routing system, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 382, 38–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.08.044, 2013.
Brady, P. V.: The effect of silicate weathering on global temperature and atmospheric CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 18101–18106, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JB01898, 1991.
Brantley, S. L., Holleran, M. E., Jin, L., and Bazilevskaya, E.: Probing deep weathering in the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Pennsylvania (USA): The hypothesis of nested chemical reaction fronts in the subsurface, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 38, 1280–1298, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3415, 2013.
Calmels, D., Gaillardet, J., Brenot, A., and France-Lanord, C.: Sustained sulfide oxidation by physical erosion processes in the Mackenzie River basin: Climatic perspectives, Geology, 35, 1003, https://doi.org/10.1130/G24132A.1, 2007.
Calmels, D., Galy, A., Hovius, N., Bickle, M., West, a. J., Chen, M.-C., and Chapman, H.: Contribution of deep groundwater to the weathering budget in a rapidly eroding mountain belt, Taiwan, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 303, 48–58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.032, 2011.
Central Geological Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs: Geologic Map of Taiwan, 2000.
Chamberlain, C. P., Waldbauer, J. R., and Jacobson, A. D.: Strontium, hydrothermal systems and steady-state chemical weathering in active mountain belts, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 238, 351–366, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.08.005, 2005.
Cheng, M.-C. and You, C.-F.: Sources of major ions and heavy metals in rainwater associated with typhoon events in southwestern Taiwan, J. Geochem. Explor., 105, 106–116, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2010.04.010, 2010.
Chien, F. C. and Kuo, H. C.: On the extreme rainfall of Typhoon Morakot (2009), J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1–22, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD015092, 2011.
Clarke, B. A. and Burbank, D. W.: Quantifying bedrock-fracture patterns within the shallow subsurface: Implications for rock mass strength, bedrock landslides, and erodibility, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 116, F04009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF001987, 2011.
CWB (Central Weather Bureau): Daily Precipitation records, available at: http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7e/climate/dailyPrecipitation/dP.htm, last access: 25 May, 2016.
Dadson, S. J., Hovius, N., Chen, H., Dade, W. B., Hsieh, M.-L., Willett, S. D., Hu, J.-C., Horng, M.-J., Chen, M.-C., Stark, C. P., Lague, D., and Lin, J.-C.: Links between erosion, runoff variability and seismicity in the Taiwan orogen, Nature, 426, 648–651, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02150, 2003.
Dadson, S. J., Hovius, N., Chen, H., Dade, W. B., Lin, J.-C., Hsu, M.-L., Lin, C.-W., Horng, M.-J., Chen, T.-C., Milliman, J., and Stark, C. P.: Earthquake-triggered increase in sediment delivery from an active mountain belt, Geology, 32, 733–736 https://doi.org/10.1130/G20639.1, 2004.
Das, A., Chung, C.-H., and You, C.-F.: Disproportionately high rates of sulfide oxidation from mountainous river basins of Taiwan orogeny: Sulfur isotope evidence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L12404, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051549, 2012.
Dixon, J. L. and von Blanckenburg, F.: Soils as pacemakers and limiters of global silicate weathering, C. R. Geosci., 344, 597–609, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2012.10.012, 2012.
Drake, H., Tullborg, E. L., and MacKenzie, A. B.: Detecting the near-surface redox front in crystalline bedrock using fracture mineral distribution, geochemistry and U-series disequilibrium, Appl. Geochem., 24, 1023–1039, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.03.004, 2009.
Emberson, R., Hovius, N., Galy, A., and Marc, O.: Chemical weathering in active mountain belts controlled by stochastic bedrock landsliding, Nat. Geosci., 9, 42–45, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO2600, 2016.
Ferrier, K. L. and Kirchner, J. W.: Effects of physical erosion on chemical denudation rates: A numerical modeling study of soil-mantled hillslopes, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 272, 591–599, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.024, 2008.
Fuller, C. W., Willett, S. D., Hovius, N., and Slingerland, R.: Erosion Rates for Taiwan Mountain Basins: New Determinations from Suspended Sediment Records and a Stochastic Model of Their Temporal Variation, J. Geol., 111, 71–87, https://doi.org/10.1086/344665, 2003.
Gabet, E. J.: A theoretical model coupling chemical weathering and physical erosion in landslide-dominated landscapes, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 264, 259–265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.09.028, 2007.
Gaillardet, J., Dupré, B., Louvat, P., and Allegre, C.: Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers, Chem. Geol., 159, 3–30, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(99)00031-5, 1999.
Galloway, J. N., Likens, G. E., Keene, C., and Miller, J. M.: The composition of precipitation in remote areas of the world, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 87, 8771–8786, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC087iC11p08771, 1982.
Galy, A. and France-Lanord, C.: Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget, Chem. Geol., 159, 31–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(99)00033-9, 1999.
Hartmann, J. and Moosdorf, N.: The new global lithological map database GLiM: A representation of rock properties at the Earth surface, Geochem. Geophys. Geosy., 13, 1–37, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004370, 2012.
Heimsath, A. M., Dietrich, W. E., Nishiizumi, K., and Finkel, R. C.: The soil production function and landscape equilibrium, Nature, 388, 21–24, 1997.
Hilley, G. E., Chamberlain, C. P., Moon, S., Porder, S., and Willett, S. D.: Competition between erosion and reaction kinetics in controlling silicate-weathering rates, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 293, 191–199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.01.008, 2010.
Hilton, R. G., Galy, A., and Hovius, N.: Riverine particulate organic carbon from an active mountain belt: Importance of landslides, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, GB1017, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002905, 2008.
Hilton, R. G., Meunier, P., Hovius, N., Bellingham, P. J., and Galy, A.: Landslide impact on organic carbon cycling in a temperate montane forest, Earth Surf. Proc. Land, 36, 1670–1679, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2191, 2011.
Hilton, R. G., Gaillardet, J., Calmels, D., and Birck, J. L.: Geological respiration of a mountain belt revealed by the trace element rhenium, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 403, 27–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.021, 2014.
Hovius, N., Stark, C., and Allen, P.: Sediment flux from a mountain belt derived by landslide mapping, Geology, 25, 231–234, 1997.
Hovius, N., Stark, C. P., Hao-Tsu, C., and Jiun-Chuan, L.: Supply and Removal of Sediment in a Landslide-Dominated Mountain Belt: Central Range, Taiwan, J. Geol., 108, 73–89, https://doi.org/10.1086/314387, 2000.
Hovius, N., Meunier, P., Lin, C.-W., Chen, H., Chen, Y.-G., Dadson, S., Horng, M.-J., and Lines, M.: Prolonged seismically induced erosion and the mass balance of a large earthquake, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 304, 347–355, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.005, 2011.
Hsieh, M. L. and Capart, H.: Late Holocene episodic river aggradation along the Lao-nong River (southwestern Taiwan): An application to the Tseng-wen Reservoir Transbasin Diversion Project, Eng. Geol., 159, 83–97, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.03.019, 2013.
Hsieh, M.-L. and Chyi, S.-J.: Late Quaternary mass-wasting records and formation of fan terraces in the Chen-yeo-lan and Lao-nung catchments, central-southern Taiwan, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 29, 1399–1418, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.10.002, 2010.
Jacobson, A. D., Blum, J. D., Chamberlain, C. P., Craw, D. C., and Koons, P. O. K.: Climatic and tectonic controls on chemical weathering in the New Zealand Southern Alps, Geochemica Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 29–46, 2003.
Kao, S., Horng, C., Roberts, A. P., and Liu, K.: Carbon–sulfur–iron relationships in sedimentary rocks from southwestern Taiwan: influence of geochemical environment on greigite and pyrrhotite formation, Chem. Geol., 203, 153–168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2003.09.007, 2004.
Knutson, T. R., McBride, J. L., Chan, J., Emanuel, K., Holland, G., Landsea, C., Held, I., Kossin, J. P., Srivastava, A. K., and Sugi, M.: Tropical cyclones and climate change, Nat. Geosci., 3, 157–163, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo779, 2010.
Koons, P. O. and Craw, D.: Gold mineralization as a consequence of continental collision: an example from the Southern Alps, New Zealand, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 103, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90145-8, 1991.
Larsen, I. J., Montgomery, D. R., and Korup, O.: Landslide erosion controlled by hillslope material, Nat. Geosci., 3, 247–251, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo776, 2010.
Lebedeva, M. I., Fletcher, R. C., and Brantley, S. L.: A mathematical model for steady-state regolith production at constant erosion rate, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 35, 508–524, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1954, 2010.
Lee, K. T. and Ho, J. Y.: Prediction of landslide occurrence based on slope-instability analysis and hydrological model simulation, J. Hydrol., 375, 489–497, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.06.053, 2009.
Lee, T. Y., Hong, N. M., Shih, Y. T., Huang, J. C., and Kao, S. J.: The sources of streamwater to small mountainous rivers in Taiwan during typhoon and non-typhoon seasons, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5183-2, online first, 2015.
Lerman, A., Wu, L., and Mackenzie, F. T.: CO2 and H2SO4 consumption in weathering and material transport to the ocean, and their role in the global carbon balance, Mar. Chem., 106, 326–350, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2006.04.004, 2007.
Li, D. D., Jacobson, A. D., and McInerney, D. J.: A reactive-transport model for examining tectonic and climatic controls on chemical weathering and atmospheric CO2 consumption in granitic regolith, Chem. Geol., 365, 30–42, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.11.028, 2014.
Li, G., West, A. J., Densmore, A. L., Jin, Z., Parker, R. N., and Hilton, R. G.: Seismic mountain building: Landslides associated with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in the context of a generalized model for earthquake volume balance, Geochem. Geophy. Geosys., 15, 833–844, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GC005067, 2014.
Lin, C. W., Chang, W. S., Liu, S. H., Tsai, T. T., Lee, S. P., Tsang, Y. C., Shieh, C. L., and Tseng, C. M.: Landslides triggered by the 7 August 2009 Typhoon Morakot in southern Taiwan, Eng. Geol., 123, 3–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.06.007, 2011.
Lin, G.-W., Chen, H., Chen, Y.-H., and Horng, M.-J.: Influence of typhoons and earthquakes on rainfall-induced landslides and suspended sediments discharge, Eng. Geol., 97, 32–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.12.001, 2008.
Lyons, W. B., Carey, A. E., Hicks, D. M., and Nezat, C. A.: Chemical weathering in high-sediment-yielding watersheds, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F01008, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JF000088, 2005.
Maher, K.: The role of fluid residence time and topographic scales in determining chemical fluxes from landscapes, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 312, 48–58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.040, 2011.
Maher, K. and Chamberlain, C. P.: Hydrologic Regulation of Chemical Weathering and the Geologic Carbon Cycle, Science, 343, 1502–1504, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1250770, 2014.
Malmstrom, M., Banwart, S., Lewenhagen, J., Duro, L., and Bruno, J.: The dissolution of biotite and chlorite at 25 °C in the near-neutral pH region, J. Contam. Hydrol., 21, 201–213, 1996.
Marc, O. and Hovius, N.: Amalgamation in landslide maps: effects and automatic detection, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 723–733, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-723-2015, 2015.
Marc, O., Hovius, N., Meunier, P., Uchida, T., and Hayashi, S.: Transient changes of landslide rates after earthquakes, Geology, 43, G36961.1, https://doi.org/10.1130/G36961.1, 2015.
Menzies, C. D., Teagle, D. a. H., Craw, D., Cox, S. C., Boyce, A. J., Barrie, C. D., and Roberts, S.: Incursion of meteoric waters into the ductile regime in an active orogen, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 399, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.04.046, 2014.
Molnar, P., Anderson, R. S., and Anderson, S. P.: Tectonics, fracturing of rock, and erosion, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 112, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JF000433, 2007.
Nichol, S. E., Harvey, M. J., and Boyd, L. S.: Ten Years of Rainfall Chemistry in New Zealand, Clean Air, 30–37, ISSN: 0009-8647, 1997.
Pankhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J.: Description of input and examples for PHREEQC version 3 – A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, in US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A43, p. 497, 2013.
Raymo, M. E. and Ruddiman, W. F.: Tectonic Forcing of Late Cenozoic Climate, Nature, 359, 117–122, 1992.
Riebe, C. S., Kirchner, J. W., and Finkel, R. C.: Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 4411–4427, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X, 2003.
Tipper, E. T., Bickle, M. J., Galy, A., West, A. J., Pomiès, C., and Chapman, H. J.: The short term climatic sensitivity of carbonate and silicate weathering fluxes: Insight from seasonal variations in river chemistry, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 70, 2737–2754, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.03.005, 2006.
Torres, M., West, J., and Clark, K. E.: Geomorphic regime modulates hydrologic control of chemical weathering in the Andes-Amazon, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 166, 105–128, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.06.007, 2015.
Torres, M. A., West, A. J., and Li, G.: Sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution as a source of CO2 over geological timescales, Nature, 507, 346–349, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13030, 2014.
Torres, M. A., West, A. J., Clark, K. E., Paris, G., Bouchez, J., Ponton, C., Feakins, S. J., Galy, V., and Adkins, J. F.: The acid and alkalinity budgets of weathering in the Andes – Amazon system?: Insights into the erosional control of global biogeochemical cycles, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 1, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.06.012, 2016.
Wai, K. M., Lin, N.-H., Wang, S.-H., and Dokiya, Y.: Rainwater chemistry at a high-altitude station, Mt. Lulin, Taiwan: Comparison with a background station, Mt. Fuji, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008248, 2008.
West, A. J.: Thickness of the chemical weathering zone and implications for erosional and climatic drivers of weathering and for carbon-cycle feedbacks, Geology, 40, 811–814, https://doi.org/10.1130/G33041.1, 2012.
West, A. J., Galy, A., and Bickle, M.: Tectonic and climatic controls on silicate weathering, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 235, 211–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.03.020, 2005.
West, A. J., Lin, C., Lin, T., Hilton, R. G., Liu, S., Chang, C., Lin, K., Galy, A., Sparkes, R. B., and Hovius, N.: Mobilization and transport of coarse woody debris to the oceans triggered by an extreme tropical storm, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56, 77–85, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2011.56.1.0077, 2011.
Willett, S. D., Fisher, D., Fuller, C., En-Chao, Y., and Chia-Yu, L.: Erosion rates and orogenic-wedge kinematics in Taiwan inferred from fission-track thermochronometry, Geology, 31, 945–948, https://doi.org/10.1130/g19702.1, 2003.
Zeebe, R. E. and Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.: CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, Elsevier Oceanography Series, Amsterdam, 65, 2001.
Rapid dissolution of bedrock and regolith mobilised by landslides can be an important control on rates of overall chemical weathering in mountain ranges. In this study we analysed a number of landslides and rivers in Taiwan to better understand why this occurs. We find that sulfuric acid resulting from rapid oxidation of highly reactive sulfides in landslide deposits drives the intense weathering and can set catchment-scale solute budgets. This could be a CO2 source in fast-eroding mountains.
Rapid dissolution of bedrock and regolith mobilised by landslides can be an important control on...