Articles | Volume 6, issue 1
05 Mar 2018
Research article | 05 Mar 2018
Topographical change caused by moderate and small floods in a gravel bed ephemeral river – a depth-averaged morphodynamic simulation approach
Eliisa S. Lotsari et al.
No articles found.
P. Rönnholm, S. Wittke, M. Ingman, P. Putkiranta, H. Kauhanen, H. Kaartinen, and M. T. Vaaja
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B2-2022, 633–639,
Gerardo Benito, Olegario Castillo, Juan A. Ballesteros-Cánovas, Maria Machado, and Mariano Barriendos
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6107–6132,Short summary
Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of floods, but changes are difficult to project. We compiled historical and modern flood data of the Rio Duero (Spain) to evaluate flood hazards beyond decadal climate cycles. Historical floods were obtained from documentary sources, identifying 69 floods over 1250–1871 CE. Discharges were calculated from reported flood heights. Flood frequency using historical datasets showed the most robust results, guiding climate change adaptation.
Terhikki Manninen, Kati Anttila, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Aku Riihelä, Jouni Peltoniemi, Petri Räisänen, Panu Lahtinen, Niilo Siljamo, Laura Thölix, Outi Meinander, Anna Kontu, Hanne Suokanerva, Roberta Pirazzini, Juha Suomalainen, Teemu Hakala, Sanna Kaasalainen, Harri Kaartinen, Antero Kukko, Olivier Hautecoeur, and Jean-Louis Roujean
The Cryosphere, 15, 793–820,Short summary
The primary goal of this paper is to present a model of snow surface albedo (brightness) accounting for small-scale surface roughness effects. It can be combined with any volume scattering model. The results indicate that surface roughness may decrease the albedo by about 1–3 % in midwinter and even more than 10 % during the late melting season. The effect is largest for low solar zenith angle values and lower bulk snow albedo values.
A. Kukko, H. Kaartinen, G. Osinski, and J. Hyyppä
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-2-2020, 749–756,
Anna Grau Galofre, A. Mark Jellinek, Gordon R. Osinski, Michael Zanetti, and Antero Kukko
The Cryosphere, 12, 1461–1478,Short summary
Water accumulated at the base of ice sheets is the main driver of glacier acceleration and loss of ice mass in Arctic regions. Previously glaciated landscapes sculpted by this water carry information about how ice sheets collapse and ultimately disappear. The search for these landscapes took us to the high Arctic, to explore channels that formed under kilometers of ice during the last ice age. In this work we describe how subglacial channels look and how they helped to drain an ice sheet.
S. Junttila, M. Vastaranta, R. Linnakoski, J. Sugano, H. Kaartinen, A. Kukko, M. Holopainen, H. Hyyppä, and J. Hyyppä
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W3, 81–85,
G. Benito, R. Brázdil, J. Herget, and M. J. Machado
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3517–3539,Short summary
Historical hydrology combines documentary data with hydrological methods to lengthen flow records to the past centuries. We describe the methodological evolution of historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. Analysis of 45 case studies in Europe show that present flood magnitudes are not unusual in the context of the past, whereas flood frequency has decreased, although some rivers show a reactivation of rare floods over the last two decades.
M. J. Machado, B. A. Botero, J. López, F. Francés, A. Díez-Herrero, and G. Benito
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2561–2576,Short summary
A flood frequency analysis using a 400-year historical flood record was carried out using a stationary model (based on maximum likelihood estimators) and a non-stationary model that incorporates external covariates (climatic and environmental). The stationary model was successful in providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.
J. Svensson, A. Virkkula, O. Meinander, N. Kivekäs, H.-R. Hannula, O. Järvinen, J. I. Peltoniemi, M. Gritsevich, A. Heikkilä, A. Kontu, A.-P. Hyvärinen, K. Neitola, D. Brus, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, K. Anttila, T. Hakala, H. Kaartinen, M. Vehkamäki, G. de Leeuw, and H. Lihavainen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Soot's (including black carbon and organics) negative effect on a natural snow pack is experimentally addressed in this paper through a series of experiments. Soot concentrations in the snow in the range of 200-200 000 ppb verify the negative effects on the albedo, the physical snow characteristics, as well as increasing the melt rate of the snow pack. Our experimental data generally agrees when compared with the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model.
G. Bussi, X. Rodríguez-Lloveras, F. Francés, G. Benito, Y. Sánchez-Moya, and A. Sopeña
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3339–3354,
Related subject area
Physical: Geomorphology (including all aspects of fluvial, coastal, aeolian, hillslope and glacial geomorphology)Organic carbon burial by river meandering partially offsets bank erosion carbon fluxes in a discontinuous permafrost floodplainEstuarine morphodynamics and development modified by floodplain formationConvolutional neural networks for image-based sediment detection applied to a large terrestrial and airborne datasetA geomorphic-process-based cellular automata model of colluvial wedge morphology and stratigraphySignal response of the Swiss plate geophone monitoring system impacted by bedload particles with different transport modesMorphodynamic styles: characterising the behaviour of gravel-bed rivers using a novel, quantitative indexRapid Holocene bedrock canyon incision of Beida River, North Qilian Shan, ChinaThe landslide velocityAn analytical model for beach erosion downdrift of groins: case study of Jeongdongjin Beach, KoreaPermafrost in monitored unstable rock slopes in Norway – new insights from temperature and surface velocity measurements, geophysical surveying, and ground temperature modellingContinuous measurements of valley floor width in mountainous landscapesThe role of geological mouth islands on the morphodynamics of back-barrier tidal basinsFrom apex to shoreline: fluvio-deltaic architecture for the Holocene Rhine–Meuse delta, the NetherlandsIntensified paraglacial slope failures due to accelerating downwasting of a temperate glacier in Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan PlateauSuspended sediment and discharge dynamics in a glacierized alpine environment: Identifying crucial areas and time periods on several spatial and temporal scales in the Ötztal, AustriaBreaking down chipping and fragmentation in sediment transport: the control of material strengthMulti-objective optimisation of a rock coast evolution model with cosmogenic 10Be analysis for the quantification of long-term cliff retreat ratesSpatio-temporal variability and controlling factors for postglacial erosion dynamics in the Dora Baltea catchment (western Italian Alps)Triggering and propagation of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain channels: insights from flume experiments with seismic monitoringTemporal changes in the debris flow threshold under the effects of ground freezing and sediment storage on Mt. FujiSedimentary architecture and landforms of the late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin offshore of the NetherlandsRelationship between meteoric 10Be and NO3− concentrations in soils along Shackleton Glacier, AntarcticaSediment shell-content diminishes current-driven sand ripple development and migrationSand mining far outpaces natural supply in a large alluvial riverThe formation and geometry characteristics of boulder bars due to outburst floods triggered by overtopped landslide dam failureLandslide-lake outburst floods accelerate downstream hillslope slippageThe relative influence of dune aspect ratio and beach width on dune erosion as a function of storm duration and surge levelA temperature-dependent mechanical model to assess the stability of degrading permafrost rock slopesThe effects of storms and a transient sandy veneer on the interannual planform evolution of a low-relief coastal cliff and shore platform at Sargent Beach, Texas, USAIdentification of rock and fracture kinematics in high alpine rockwalls under the influence of elevationControls on the grain size distribution of landslides in Taiwan: the influence of drop height, scar depth and bedrock strengthAssessing the effect of topography on Cs-137 concentrations within forested soils due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, JapanCentral Himalayan rivers record the topographic signature of erosion by glacial lake outburst floodsClimatic controls on mountain glacier basal thermal regimes dictate spatial patterns of glacial erosionTectonically and climatically driven mountain-hopping erosion in central Guatemala from detrital 10Be and river profile analysisStochastic alluvial fan and terrace formation triggered by a high-magnitude Holocene landslide in the Klados Gorge, CreteControls on the rates and products of particle attrition by bed-load collisionsBedrock river erosion through dipping layered rocks: quantifying erodibility through kinematic wave speedParticle energy partitioning and transverse diffusion during rarefied travel on an experimental hillslopeShort communication: Runout of rock avalanches limited by basal friction but controlled by fragmentationRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 1: TheoryRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 2: AnalysisRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 3: EntropyRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 4: PhilosophyImplications of the ongoing rock uplift in NW Himalayan interiorsInteractions between deforestation, landscape rejuvenation, and shallow landslides in the North Tanganyika–Kivu rift region, AfricaRelevance of acoustic methods to quantify bedload transport and bedform dynamics in a large sandy-gravel-bed riverEarthquake-induced debris flows at Popocatépetl Volcano, MexicoA multi-proxy assessment of terrace formation in the lower Trinity River valley, TexasControls on the hydraulic geometry of alluvial channels: bank stability to gravitational failure, the critical-flow hypothesis, and conservation of mass and energy
Madison M. Douglas, Gen K. Li, Woodward W. Fischer, Joel C. Rowland, Preston C. Kemeny, A. Joshua West, Jon Schwenk, Anastasia P. Piliouras, Austin J. Chadwick, and Michael P. Lamb
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 421–435,Short summary
Arctic rivers erode into permafrost and mobilize organic carbon, which can react to form greenhouse gasses or be re-buried in floodplain deposits. We collected samples on a permafrost floodplain in Alaska to determine if more carbon is eroded or deposited by river meandering. The floodplain contained a mixture of young carbon fixed by the biosphere and old, re-deposited carbon. Thus, sediment storage may allow Arctic river floodplains to retain aged organic carbon even when permafrost thaws.
Maarten G. Kleinhans, Lonneke Roelofs, Steven A. H. Weisscher, Ivar R. Lokhorst, and Lisanne Braat
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 367–381,Short summary
Floodplain formation in estuaries limit the ebb and flood flow, reducing channel migration and shortening the tidally influenced reach. Vegetation establishment on bars reduces local flow velocity and concentrates flow into channels, while mudflats fill accommodation space and reduce channel migration. These results are based on experimental estuaries in the Metronome facility supported by numerical flow modelling.
Xingyu Chen, Marwan A. Hassan, and Xudong Fu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 349–366,Short summary
We compiled a large image dataset containing more than 125 000 sediments and developed a model (GrainID) based on convolutional neural networks to measure individual grain size from images. The model was calibrated on flume and natural stream images covering a wide range of fluvial environments. The model showed high performance compared with other methods. Our model showed great potential for grain size measurements from a small patch of sediment in a flume to a watershed-scale drone survey.
Harrison J. Gray, Christopher B. DuRoss, Sylvia R. Nicovich, and Ryan D. Gold
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 329–348,Short summary
Some types of big earthquakes create small cliffs or
fault scarps∼1–3 m in height, where sediments can pile up and create deposits we call
colluvial wedges. Geologists will look at colluvial wedges and use them to understand how often big earthquakes occur. Here we made a computer simulation to find out if the way we think colluvial wedges form works with physics. We found that it does in theory, but there are conditions in which it may be more complicated than we expected.
Zheng Chen, Siming He, Tobias Nicollier, Lorenz Ammann, Alexandre Badoux, and Dieter Rickenmann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 279–300,Short summary
Bedload flux quantification remains challenging in river dynamics due to variable transport modes. We used a passive monitoring device to record the acoustic signals generated by the impacts of bedload particles with different transport modes, and established the relationship between the triggered signals and bedload characteristics. The findings of this study could improve our understanding of the monitoring system and bedload transport process, and contribute to bedload size classification.
William H. Booker and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 247–260,Short summary
Channel behaviour is a qualitative aspect of river research that needs development to produce a framework of analysis between and within types of channels. We seek to produce a quantitative metric that can capture how a channel changes using a pair of experiments and collecting easy to obtain data. We demonstrate that this new technique is capable of discerning between river types and may provide a new tool with which we may describe channel behaviour.
Yiran Wang, Michael E. Oskin, Youli Li, and Huiping Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 191–208,Short summary
Beida River has an over-steepened reach presently located 10 km upstream of the North Qilian mountain front. It was formed because river incising into the bedrocks inside the mountain cannot keep up with river incising into the soft sediment in the basin. We suggest this over-steepened reach represents a fast incision period 3–4 kyr ago, deepening the canyon for ~35 m within ~700 years. The formation of this reach corresponds to a humid period related to strong Southeast Asian Monsoon influence.
Shiva P. Pudasaini and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 165–189,Short summary
We present the first physics-based general landslide velocity model incorporating internal deformation and external forces. Voellmy–inviscid Burgers' equations are specifications of the novel advective–dissipative system. Unified analytical solutions constitute a new foundation of landslide velocity, providing key information to instantly estimate impact forces and describe breaking waves and folding, revealing that landslide dynamics are architectured by advection and reigned by forcing.
Changbin Lim, Soonmi Hwang, and Jung Lyul Lee
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 151–163,Short summary
Recently, along the east coast of South Korea, seasonal beach erosion has been induced by structures which severely block the supply of sand from the upstream side. This study proposes a coastal solution that can predict the maximum indentation point in downdrift erosion formed downstream of groins by applying a parabolic bay shape equation (PBSE).
Bernd Etzelmüller, Justyna Czekirda, Florence Magnin, Pierre-Allain Duvillard, Ludovic Ravanel, Emanuelle Malet, Andreas Aspaas, Lene Kristensen, Ingrid Skrede, Gudrun D. Majala, Benjamin Jacobs, Johannes Leinauer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Martina Böhme, Reginald Hermanns, Harald Ø. Eriksen, Tom Rune Lauknes, Michael Krautblatter, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 97–129,Short summary
This paper is a multi-authored study documenting the possible existence of permafrost in permanently monitored rockslides in Norway for the first time by combining a multitude of field data, including geophysical surveys in rock walls. The paper discusses the possible role of thermal regime and rockslide movement, and it evaluates the possible impact of atmospheric warming on rockslide dynamics in Norwegian mountains.
Fiona Jane Clubb, Eliot Francois Weir, and Simon Marius Mudd
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
River valleys are important components of mountain systems: they are the most fertile part of landscapes, and store sediment which is transported from mountains to surrounding basins. Our knowledge of the location and shape of valleys is hindered by our ability to measure them over large areas. We present a new method for measuring the width of mountain valleys continuously along river channels from digital topography, and show that our method can be used to test common models of river widening.
Yizhang Wei, Yining Chen, Jufei Qiu, Zeng Zhou, Peng Yao, Qin Jiang, Zheng Gong, Giovanni Coco, Ian Townend, and Changkuan Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 65–80,Short summary
The barrier tidal basin is increasingly altered by human activity and sea-level rise. These environmental changes probably lead to the emergence or disappearance of islands, yet the effect of rocky islands on the evolution of tidal basins remains poorly investigated. Using numerical experiments, we explore the evolution of tidal basins under varying numbers and locations of islands. This work provides insights for predicting the response of barrier tidal basins in a changing environment.
Marc J. P. Gouw and Marc P. Hijma
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 43–64,Short summary
If you were to navigate an entire delta by boat, you would clearly see that the general characteristics of the channels change throughout the delta. The drivers behind these changes have been studied extensively. Field studies encompassing the entire delta are rare but give important insights into these drivers that can help other researchers. The most important drivers are channel lateral-migration rate, channel-belt longevity, creation of accommodation space and inherited floodplain width.
Yan Zhong, Qiao Liu, Matthew Westoby, Yong Nie, Francesca Pellicciotti, Bo Zhang, Jialun Cai, Guoxiang Liu, Haijun Liao, and Xuyang Lu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 23–42,Short summary
Slope failures exist in many paraglacial regions and are the main manifestation of the interaction between debris-covered glaciers and slopes. We mapped paraglacial slope failures (PSFs) along the Hailuogou Glacier (HLG), Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We argue that the formation, evolution, and current status of these typical PSFs are generally related to glacier history and paraglacial geomorphological adjustments, and influenced by the fluctuation of climate conditions.
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Erwin Rottler, Theresa Blume, Johannes Schöber, and Axel Bronstert
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
Climate change will fundamentally alter glaciated high alpine areas, but how this affects river sediments is still unclear. In this study, we investigated data of the past 15 years and found that areas above 2500 m are crucial for sediment transport in rivers draining three glaciated catchments in the Ötztal, Austria, while summer rainstorms were less influential for sediment dynamics than glaciers. Our findings provide a baseline for studies on future changes of high alpine sediment dynamics.
Sophie Bodek and Douglas J. Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1531–1543,Short summary
As rocks are transported, they undergo two attrition mechanisms: chipping, shallow cracking at low collision energies; and fragmentation, significant fracture growth from high-energy impacts. We examine the mass and shape evolution of concrete particles in a rotating drum to experimentally delineate the boundary between chipping and fragmentation. By connecting the mechanics of these attrition processes to resulting shape evolution, we can use particle shape to infer past transport conditions.
Jennifer R. Shadrick, Martin D. Hurst, Matthew D. Piggott, Bethany G. Hebditch, Alexander J. Seal, Klaus M. Wilcken, and Dylan H. Rood
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1505–1529,Short summary
Here we use topographic and 10Be concentration data to optimise a coastal evolution model. Cliff retreat rates are calculated for two UK sites for the past 8000 years and, for the first time, highlight a strong link between the rate of sea level rise and long-term cliff retreat rates. This method enables us to study past cliff response to sea level rise and so to greatly improve forecasts of future responses to accelerations in sea level rise that will result from climate change.
Elena Serra, Pierre Gaston Valla, Romain Delunel, Natacha Gribenski, Marcus Christl, and Naki Akçar
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Alpine landscapes are transformed by several erosion processes. 10Be concentrations measured in river sediments at the outlet of a basin represent a powerful tool to quantify how fast the catchment erodes. We measured erosion rates within the Dora Baltea catchments (western Italian Alps). Our results show that erosion is governed by topography, bedrock resistance and glacial imprint: hard lithologies support high reliefs affected by glacial/periglacial processes and recurring rock fall events.
Marco Piantini, Florent Gimbert, Hervé Bellot, and Alain Recking
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1423–1439,Short summary
We carry out laboratory experiments to investigate the formation and propagation dynamics of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain rivers. We show that the ability of a self-formed deposit to destabilize and generate sediment pulses depends on the sand content of the mixture, while each pulse turns out to be formed by a front, a body, and a tail. Seismic measurements reveal a complex and non-unique dependency between seismic power and sediment pulse transport characteristics.
Fumitoshi Imaizumi, Atsushi Ikeda, Kazuki Yamamoto, and Okihiro Ohsaka
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1381–1398,Short summary
The rainfall threshold for debris flow occurrence was evaluated on Mt. Fuji, Japan. Debris flows during frozen periods were triggered by a smaller magnitude of rainfall than during unfrozen periods. During unfrozen periods, the threshold of maximum hourly rainfall intensity triggering debris flow was higher when the volume of channel deposits was larger. The results suggest that the occurrence of frozen ground needs to be monitored for better debris flow disaster mitigation in cold regions.
Víctor Cartelle, Natasha L. M. Barlow, David M. Hodgson, Freek S. Busschers, Kim M. Cohen, Bart M. L. Meijninger, and Wessel P. van Kesteren
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1399–1421,Short summary
Reconstructing the growth and decay of past ice sheets is critical to understand relationships between global climate and sea-level change. We take advantage of large wind-farm datasets in the southern North Sea to investigate buried landscapes left by ice sheet advance and retreat occurring about 160 000 years ago. We demonstrate the utility of offshore wind-farm data in refining palaeo-ice sheet margin limits and providing insight into the processes influencing marginal ice sheet dynamics.
Melisa A. Diaz, Lee B. Corbett, Paul R. Bierman, Byron J. Adams, Diana H. Wall, Ian D. Hogg, Noah Fierer, and W. Berry Lyons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1363–1380,Short summary
We collected soil surface samples and depth profiles every 5 cm (up to 30 cm) from 11 ice-free areas along the Shackleton Glacier, a major outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), and measured meteoric beryllium-10 and nitrate concentrations to understand the relationship between salts and beryllium-10. This relationship can help inform wetting history, landscape disturbance, and exposure duration.
Chiu H. Cheng, Jaco C. de Smit, Greg S. Fivash, Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher, Bas W. Borsje, and Karline Soetaert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1335–1346,Short summary
Shells are biogenic particles that are widespread throughout natural sandy environments and can affect the bed roughness and seabed erodibility. As studies are presently lacking, we experimentally measured ripple formation and migration using natural sand with increasing volumes of shell material under unidirectional flow in a racetrack flume. We show that shells expedite the onset of sediment transport, reduce ripple dimensions and slow their migration rate.
Christopher R. Hackney, Grigorios Vasilopoulos, Sokchhay Heng, Vasudha Darbari, Samuel Walker, and Daniel R. Parsons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1323–1334,Short summary
Unsustainable sand mining poses a threat to the stability of river channels. We use satellite imagery to estimate volumes of material removed from the Mekong River, Cambodia, over the period 2016–2020. We demonstrate that current rates of extraction now exceed previous estimates for the entire Mekong Basin and significantly exceed the volume of sand naturally transported by the river. Our work highlights the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring sand mining activity over large areas.
Xiangang Jiang, Haiguang Cheng, Lei Gao, and Weiming Liu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1263–1277,Short summary
Boulder bars are a common form of riverbed morphology which can be affected by outburst flood. However, few studies have focused on boulder bars' formation process and development characteristics during landslide dam failure. In this paper, eight groups of dam failure experiments were carried out to study the development and geometry characteristics of boulder bars during and after dam failure. Moreover, the relationships between geometry parameters of boulder bars are investigated.
Wentao Yang, Jian Fang, and Jing Liu-Zeng
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1251–1262,Short summary
The eastern Tibetan Plateau is an ideal place to study interactions among different geomorphic drivers. We report the impacts of two 2018 landslide-lake outburst floods up to 100 km distance downstream of the Jinsha River. By using remote sensing images, we found that the 2018 floods caused many hillslopes to slump during the prolonged period afterwards. The finding could help us to obtain a holistic picture of LLF impacts and improve geomorphic models of landscape evolution.
Michael Itzkin, Laura J. Moore, Peter Ruggiero, Sally D. Hacker, and Reuben G. Biel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1223–1237,Short summary
Studies of the impact of storms on dunes typically focus on the importance of dune elevation, here we analyze the protective services offered by the dune height and width, the morphology of the beach fronting the dune, and artificial dune construction via the use of sand fences. We find that dune volume loss most strongly correlates to beach width rather than dune shape, although when beach width is controlled for low and wide dunes offer greater protection than tall and narrow dunes.
Philipp Mamot, Samuel Weber, Saskia Eppinger, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1125–1151,Short summary
The mechanical response of permafrost degradation on high-mountain rock slope stability has not been calculated in a numerical model yet. We present the first approach for a model with thermal and mechanical input data derived from laboratory and field work, and existing concepts. This is applied to a test site at the Zugspitze, Germany. A numerical sensitivity analysis provides the first critical stability thresholds related to the rock temperature, slope angle and fracture network orientation.
Rose V. Palermo, Anastasia Piliouras, Travis E. Swanson, Andrew D. Ashton, and David Mohrig
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1111–1123,Short summary
At Sargent Beach, Texas, USA, a rapidly eroding soft-sediment cliff system, we study the planform evolution of the cliff face in response to storms and sediment cover. Through this analysis, we characterize the feedbacks between morphology and retreat rate of a cliff face. We find that after a storm event, the roughness and sinuosity of the cliff face increase, which sustains higher retreat rates for years following.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 977–994,Short summary
Alpine rockwalls are affected by weathering processes that result in rock and fracture deformation. This deformation decreases rockwall stability with time. I installed crackmeters along a topographic gradient to identify the spatial and temporal variation of weathering processes. My data show that elevation-dependent snow cover, topographic factors and fracture dipping control the frequency and magnitude of weathering processes and resulting rock kinematics.
Odin Marc, Jens M. Turowski, and Patrick Meunier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 995–1011,Short summary
The size of grains delivered to rivers is an essential parameter for understanding erosion and sediment transport and their related hazards. In mountains, landslides deliver these rock fragments, but few studies have analyzed the landslide properties that control the resulting sizes. We present measurements on 17 landslides from Taiwan and show that their grain sizes depend on rock strength, landslide depth and drop height, thereby validating and updating a previous theory on fragmentation.
Misa Yasumiishi, Taku Nishimura, Jared Aldstadt, Sean J. Bennett, and Thomas Bittner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 861–893,Short summary
Topographic effects on radioactive contamination in a forested area were quantitatively examined using soil core samples collected in a village in Fukushima, Japan. The results confirmed that local topography influences the contamination patterns in soils, and its effects vary depending on the combinations of the topographic parameters. This finding suggests that topographic characteristics should be considered carefully in future environmental radioactive risk assessments.
Maxwell P. Dahlquist and A. Joshua West
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
Himalayan rivers are full of giant boulders that almost never move except during glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs therefore must be very important for driving erosion. GLOFs are rare, so little is known about how they control erosion long-term. We analyzed rivers in the Nepal Himalaya and found the slopes and widths of channels and valleys suggest GLOFs as the dominant means of erosion. This is often unaccounted for in erosion and landscape evolution studies and should be considered.
Jingtao Lai and Alison M. Anders
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 845–859,Short summary
Glaciers are strong erosive agents, and they have created many unique landforms in mountain belts. Climate has been viewed as a primary control on glacial erosion, yet our understanding of the mechanism by which climate impacts glacial erosion remains limited. Using computer simulations, we find that climate controls glacial erosion by modulating the temperature of the basal ice. Our results suggest that a warm and/or wet climate can create warm basal ice and, therefore, enhance erosion.
Gilles Brocard, Jane Kathrin Willenbring, Tristan Salles, Michael Cosca, Axel Guttiérez-Orrego, Noé Cacao Chiquín, Sergio Morán-Ical, and Christian Teyssier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 795–822,Short summary
The rise of a mountain affects the circulation of water, both in the atmosphere and over the land surface, thereby affecting the erosion of the land surface. We document how the rise of a mountain in central Guatemala has affected the erosion of an older range nearby. The new range intercepts precipitation formerly delivered to the older range. River response to the uplift of the new range has decreased incision across the older one. Both have reduced hillslope erosion over the old range.
Elena T. Bruni, Richard F. Ott, Vincenzo Picotti, Negar Haghipour, Karl W. Wegmann, and Sean F. Gallen
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 771–793,Short summary
The Klados River catchment contains seemingly overlarge, well-preserved alluvial terraces and fans. Unlike previous studies, we argue that the deposits formed in the Holocene based on their position relative to a paleoshoreline uplifted in 365 CE and seven radiocarbon dates. We also find that constant sediment supply from high-lying landslide deposits disconnected the valley from regional tectonics and climate controls, which resulted in fan and terrace formation guided by stochastic events.
Kimberly Litwin Miller and Douglas Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 755–770,Short summary
We conducted experiments to investigate the mechanics of sediment attrition due to collisions with the channel bed during downstream transport. During this process, the grains become rounder and smaller, changing the overall distribution of sediment in the river. In this work we examine how material properties play a role in the breakdown of sediment due to energetic collisions and the fine particles that are produced when chipped off of larger grains.
Nate A. Mitchell and Brian J. Yanites
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 723–753,Short summary
A landscape's appearance reflects the properties of the underlying bedrock. For example, strong bedrock can lead to steep slopes. Recent work has shown, however, that in areas with mixed rock types the stronger bedrock can have lower slopes. In this study, we use numerical models of bedrock river erosion to show why this change in behavior occurs. We also present a new approach for estimating bedrock erodibility. This new approach can allow for new opportunities in the field of geomorphology.
Sarah G. W. Williams and David J. Furbish
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 701–721,Short summary
Particle motions and travel distances prior to deposition on hillslope surfaces depend on a balance of gravitational and frictional forces. We elaborate how particle energy is partitioned and dissipated during travel using measurements of particle travel distances supplemented with high-speed imaging of drop–impact–rebound experiments. Results show that particle shape plays a dominant role in how energy is partitioned during impact with a surface and how far particles travel in two dimensions.
Øystein T. Haug, Matthias Rosenau, Michael Rudolf, Karen Leever, and Onno Oncken
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 665–672,Short summary
The runout of rock avalanches scales with their volume but also shows a considerable variation for avalanches with similar volumes. Here we show that besides size-dependent weakening mechanisms, fragmentation can account for the observed variability in runout. We use laboratory-scale experimental avalanches to simulate and analyse the role of fragmentation. We find that fragmentation consumes energy but also increases avalanche mobility. It does so systematically and predictably.
David Jon Furbish, Joshua J. Roering, Tyler H. Doane, Danica L. Roth, Sarah G. W. Williams, and Angel M. Abbott
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 539–576,Short summary
Sediment particles skitter down steep hillslopes on Earth and Mars. Particles gain speed in going downhill but are slowed down and sometimes stop due to collisions with the rough surface. The likelihood of stopping depends on the energetics of speeding up (heating) versus slowing down (cooling). Statistical physics predicts that particle travel distances are described by a generalized Pareto distribution whose form varies with the Kirkby number – the ratio of heating to cooling.
David Jon Furbish, Sarah G. W. Williams, Danica L. Roth, Tyler H. Doane, and Joshua J. Roering
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 577–613,Short summary
The generalized Pareto distribution of particle travel distances on steep hillslopes, as described in a companion paper (Furbish et al., 2021a), is entirely consistent with measurements of travel distances obtained from laboratory and field-based experiments, supplemented with high-speed imaging and audio recordings that highlight the effects of bumpety-bump particle motions. Particle size and shape, in concert with surface roughness, strongly influence particle energetics and deposition.
David Jon Furbish, Sarah G. W. Williams, and Tyler H. Doane
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 615–628,Short summary
The generalized Pareto distribution of particle travel distances on steep hillslopes, as described in two companion papers (Furbish et al., 2021a, 2021b), is a maximum entropy distribution. This simply represents the most probable way that a great number of particles become distributed into distance states, subject to a fixed total energetic cost due to frictional effects of particle–surface collisions. The maximum entropy criterion is equivalent to a formal application of Occam's razor.
David Jon Furbish and Tyler H. Doane
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 629–664,Short summary
Using analyses of particle motions on steep hillslopes in three companion papers (Furbish et al., 2021a, 2021b, 2021c), we offer philosophical perspective on the merits of a statistical mechanics framework for describing sediment particle motions and transport, and the implications of rarefied versus continuum transport conditions. We highlight the mechanistic yet probabilistic nature of the approach, and the importance of tailoring the style of thinking to the process and scale of interest.
Saptarshi Dey, Rasmus C. Thiede, Arindam Biswas, Naveen Chauhan, Pritha Chakravarti, and Vikrant Jain
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 463–485,Short summary
Ongoing deformation of the Himalaya is not constrained to its southern extremity. With morphometric analysis using a high-resolution digital elevation model, satellite image analysis, luminescence chronology of fluvial terraces and field observations, we identify a zone of rapid rock uplift in the interior of the Kashmir Himalaya. Our results suggest active tectonic and structural control on the growth of topography in the Himalayan interiors over multi-millennial timescales.
Arthur Depicker, Gerard Govers, Liesbet Jacobs, Benjamin Campforts, Judith Uwihirwe, and Olivier Dewitte
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 445–462,Short summary
We investigated how shallow landslide occurrence is impacted by deforestation and rifting in the North Tanganyika–Kivu rift region (Africa). We developed a new approach to calculate landslide erosion rates based on an inventory compiled in biased © Google Earth imagery. We find that deforestation increases landslide erosion by a factor of 2–8 and for a period of roughly 15 years. However, the exact impact of deforestation depends on the geomorphic context of the landscape (rejuvenated/relict).
Jules Le Guern, Stéphane Rodrigues, Thomas Geay, Sébastien Zanker, Alexandre Hauet, Pablo Tassi, Nicolas Claude, Philippe Jugé, Antoine Duperray, and Louis Vervynck
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 423–444,Short summary
Despite the inherent difficulties in quantifying its value, sediment transport is essential to understanding fluvial systems. This study tries to improve the measurement by comparing several methods. Acoustic methods are compared to direct measurements with samplers. The hydrophone is well adapted to quantify sediment transport in mountain streams, but this study shows the potential and the efficiency of this device in large lowland rivers.
Velio Coviello, Lucia Capra, Gianluca Norini, Norma Dávila, Dolors Ferrés, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, and Eduard Pico
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 393–412,Short summary
The Puebla–Morelos earthquake (19 September 2017) was the most damaging event in central Mexico since 1985. The seismic shaking produced hundreds of shallow landslides on the slopes of Popocatépetl Volcano. The larger landslides transformed into large debris flows that travelled for kilometers. We describe this exceptional mass wasting cascade and its predisposing factors, which have important implications for both the evolution of the volcanic edifice and hazard assessment.
Hima J. Hassenruck-Gudipati, Thaddeus S. Ellis, Timothy A. Goudge, and David Mohrig
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
During the late Pleistocene, incision of the Trinity River valley left behind terraces. Elevation data and measurements of abandoned channels preserved on terraces are used to evaluate how these terraces formed. We find a transition in style of terraces with age from those associated with external environmental forcings to those produced by internal river-migration changes. This result shows the importance of several indicators (i.e. channel bends, elevations) to determining terrace formation.
Jon D. Pelletier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 379–391,Short summary
The sizes and shapes of alluvial channels vary in a systematic way with the water flow they convey during large floods. It is demonstrated that the depth of alluvial channels is controlled by the resistance of channel bank material to slumping, which in turn is controlled by clay content. Deeper channels have faster water flow in a manner controlled by the critical hydraulic state to which channels tend to evolve. Channel width and slope can be further quantified using conservation principles.
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This paper analyses the timing of topographical changes of a gravel bed ephemeral river channel during consecutive and moderate- and low-magnitude floods by applying a morphodynamic model calibrated with pre- and post-event surveys using RTK-GPS and mobile laser scanning. The channel acted as a braided river during lower flows but as a meandering river during higher flows. The channel changes can be greater during the long-lasting receding phase than during the rising phase of the floods.
This paper analyses the timing of topographical changes of a gravel bed ephemeral river channel...