Articles | Volume 10, issue 2
31 Mar 2022
Research article | 31 Mar 2022
Signal response of the Swiss plate geophone monitoring system impacted by bedload particles with different transport modes
Zheng Chen et al.
No articles found.
Tobias Nicollier, Gilles Antoniazza, Lorenz Ammann, Dieter Rickenmann, and James W. Kirchner
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurfShort summary
Monitoring sediment transport is relevant for flood safety and river restoration. However, the spatial and temporal variability of sediment transport processes make their prediction challenging. We investigate the feasibility of a general calibration relationship between sediment transport rates and the impact signals recorded by metal plates installed in the channel bed. We present a new calibration method based on flume experiments and apply it to an extensive dataset of field measurements.
Jacob Hirschberg, Alexandre Badoux, Brian W. McArdell, Elena Leonarduzzi, and Peter Molnar
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2773–2789,Short summary
Debris-flow prediction is often based on rainfall thresholds, but uncertainty assessments are rare. We established rainfall thresholds using two approaches and find that 25 debris flows are needed for uncertainties to converge in an Alpine basin and that the suitable method differs for regional compared to local thresholds. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of a statistical learning algorithm to improve threshold performance. These findings are helpful for early warning system development.
Georgios Maniatis, Trevor Hoey, Rebecca Hodge, Dieter Rickenmann, and Alexandre Badoux
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1067–1099,Short summary
One of the most interesting problems in geomorphology concerns the conditions that mobilise sediments grains in rivers. Newly developed
smartpebbles allow for the measurement of those conditions directly if a suitable framework for analysis is followed. This paper connects such a framework with the physics used to described sediment motion and presents a series of laboratory and field smart-pebble deployments. Those quantify how grain shape affects the motion of coarse sediments in rivers.
Lorenz Ammann, Fabrizio Fenicia, and Peter Reichert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2147–2172,Short summary
The uncertainty of hydrological models can be substantial, and its quantification and realistic description are often difficult. We propose a new flexible probabilistic framework to describe and quantify this uncertainty. It is show that the correlation of the errors can be non-stationary, and that accounting for temporal changes in correlation can lead to strongly improved probabilistic predictions. This is a promising avenue for improving uncertainty estimation in hydrological modelling.
Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva, Alexandre Badoux, Dieter Rickenmann, Martin Böckli, Salome Schläfli, Nicolas Steeb, Markus Stoffel, and Christian Rickli
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 1115–1137,
Albrecht von Boetticher, Jens M. Turowski, Brian W. McArdell, Dieter Rickenmann, Marcel Hürlimann, Christian Scheidl, and James W. Kirchner
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3963–3978,Short summary
The open-source fluid dynamic solver presented in v. Boetticher et al. (2016) combines a Coulomb viscosplastic rheological model with a Herschel–Bulkley model based on material properties for 3-D debris flow simulations. Here, we validate the solver and illustrate the model sensitivity to water content, channel curvature, content of fine material and channel bed roughness. We simulate both laboratory-scale and large-scale debris-flow experiments, using only one of the two calibration parameters.
Dieter Rickenmann and Bruno Fritschi
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 669–687,Short summary
The Swiss plate geophone system is a bedload surrogate measuring technique. Calibration measurements for this technique were performed in two mountain streams in Austria, using geophone impulse rates (a summary value) and directly measured bedload transport rates. Implausible geophone impulse counts are discussed that were recorded during periods with smaller discharges without any bedload transport, and that are likely caused by vehicle movement very near to the measuring sites.
Dieter Rickenmann, Gilles Antoniazza, Carlos R. Wyss, Bruno Fritschi, and Stefan Boss
Proc. IAHS, 375, 5–10,Short summary
Bedload transport measurements were performed with acoustic sensors (geophones and accelerometers) mounted underneath impact plates during summer 2015 in the Albula River in Switzerland. The measurements showed that the signal response in terms of geophone and accelerometer impulses is comparable for both types of sensors and that there is a good correlation between discharge data and impulses recorded by both types of sensors.
Alexandre Badoux, Norina Andres, Frank Techel, and Christoph Hegg
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2747–2768,Short summary
A database of fatalities caused by natural hazards in Switzerland was compiled for the period from 1946 to 2015: in 70 years, 635 events occurred causing 1023 fatalities. The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfalls (8 %) and landslides (7 %). The annual number of victims showed a distinct decrease over time. In comparison to other countries, the natural hazard mortality rate in Switzerland is quite low.
Albrecht von Boetticher, Jens M. Turowski, Brian W. McArdell, Dieter Rickenmann, and James W. Kirchner
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2909–2923,Short summary
Debris flows are characterized by unsteady flows of water with different content of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and large particles, resulting in a dense moving mixture mass. Here we present a three-dimensional fluid dynamic solver that simulates the flow as a mixture of a pressure-dependent rheology model of the gravel mixed with a Herschel–Bulkley rheology of the fine material suspension. We link rheological parameters to the material composition. The user must specify two free model parameters.
J. C. Peña, L. Schulte, A. Badoux, M. Barriendos, and A. Barrera-Escoda
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3807–3827,Short summary
The paper presents an index of summer flood damage in Switzerland from 1800 to 2009 and explores the influence of solar forcing, climate variability and low-frequency atmospheric circulation on flood frequencies. The flood damage index provides evidence that the 1817-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005-present flood clusters are mostly in phase with palaeoclimate proxies and solar activity minima. Floods are influenced by atmospheric instability related to the principal summer mode.
A. von Boetticher, J. M. Turowski, B. W. McArdell, D. Rickenmann, M. Hürlimann, C. Scheidl, and J. W. Kirchner
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
M. Jochner, J. M. Turowski, A. Badoux, M. Stoffel, and C. Rickli
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 311–320,Short summary
The export of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from mountain catchments seems to be strongly linked to rising discharge, but the mechanism leading to this is unclear. We show that log jams in a steep headwater stream are an effective barrier for CPOM export. Exceptional discharge events play a dual role: First, they destroy existing jams, releasing stored material. Second, they intensify channel--hillslope coupling, thereby recruiting logs to the channel, around which new jams can form.
F. U. M. Heimann, D. Rickenmann, J. M. Turowski, and J. W. Kirchner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 15–34,
F. U. M. Heimann, D. Rickenmann, M. Böckli, A. Badoux, J. M. Turowski, and J. W. Kirchner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 35–54,
A. Badoux, N. Andres, and J. M. Turowski
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 279–294,
J. M. Turowski, A. Badoux, K. Bunte, C. Rickli, N. Federspiel, and M. Jochner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 1, 1–11,
Related subject area
Physical: Geomorphology (including all aspects of fluvial, coastal, aeolian, hillslope and glacial geomorphology)Alpine rock glacier activity over Holocene to modern timescales (western French Alps)Spatio-temporal variability and controlling factors for postglacial denudation rates in the Dora Baltea catchment (western Italian Alps)Continuous measurements of valley floor width in mountainous landscapesOrganic carbon burial by river meandering partially offsets bank erosion carbon fluxes in a discontinuous permafrost floodplainEstuarine morphodynamics and development modified by floodplain formationConvolutional neural networks for image-based sediment detection applied to a large terrestrial and airborne datasetA geomorphic-process-based cellular automata model of colluvial wedge morphology and stratigraphyMorphodynamic styles: characterising the behaviour of gravel-bed rivers using a novel, quantitative indexRapid Holocene bedrock canyon incision of Beida River, North Qilian Shan, ChinaThe landslide velocityTheoretical and numerical considerations of rivers in a tectonically inactive forelandAn analytical model for beach erosion downdrift of groins: case study of Jeongdongjin Beach, KoreaVolume, formation and sedimentation of future glacier lakes in SwitzerlandPermafrost in monitored unstable rock slopes in Norway – new insights from temperature and surface velocity measurements, geophysical surveying, and ground temperature modellingStochastic description of the bedload sediment fluxThe role of geological mouth islands on the morphodynamics of back-barrier tidal basinsFrom apex to shoreline: fluvio-deltaic architecture for the Holocene Rhine–Meuse delta, the NetherlandsIntensified paraglacial slope failures due to accelerating downwasting of a temperate glacier in Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan PlateauSuspended sediment and discharge dynamics in a glacierized alpine environment: Identifying crucial areas and time periods on several spatial and temporal scales in the Ötztal, AustriaBreaking down chipping and fragmentation in sediment transport: the control of material strengthMulti-objective optimisation of a rock coast evolution model with cosmogenic 10Be analysis for the quantification of long-term cliff retreat ratesLinking levee-building processes with channel avulsion: Geomorphic analysis for assessing avulsion frequency and styleTriggering and propagation of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain channels: insights from flume experiments with seismic monitoringTemporal changes in the debris flow threshold under the effects of ground freezing and sediment storage on Mt. FujiSedimentary architecture and landforms of the late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin offshore of the NetherlandsRelationship between meteoric 10Be and NO3− concentrations in soils along Shackleton Glacier, AntarcticaSediment shell-content diminishes current-driven sand ripple development and migrationSand mining far outpaces natural supply in a large alluvial riverThe formation and geometry characteristics of boulder bars due to outburst floods triggered by overtopped landslide dam failureLandslide-lake outburst floods accelerate downstream hillslope slippageThe relative influence of dune aspect ratio and beach width on dune erosion as a function of storm duration and surge levelA temperature-dependent mechanical model to assess the stability of degrading permafrost rock slopesThe effects of storms and a transient sandy veneer on the interannual planform evolution of a low-relief coastal cliff and shore platform at Sargent Beach, Texas, USADevelopment of a surface roughness curve to estimate timing of earthflows and habitat development in the Teanaway River, central Washington State, USAIdentification of rock and fracture kinematics in high alpine rockwalls under the influence of elevationControls on the grain size distribution of landslides in Taiwan: the influence of drop height, scar depth and bedrock strengthAssessing the effect of topography on Cs-137 concentrations within forested soils due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, JapanCentral Himalayan rivers record the topographic signature of erosion by glacial lake outburst floodsClimatic controls on mountain glacier basal thermal regimes dictate spatial patterns of glacial erosionTectonically and climatically driven mountain-hopping erosion in central Guatemala from detrital 10Be and river profile analysisStochastic alluvial fan and terrace formation triggered by a high-magnitude Holocene landslide in the Klados Gorge, CreteControls on the rates and products of particle attrition by bed-load collisionsBedrock river erosion through dipping layered rocks: quantifying erodibility through kinematic wave speedParticle energy partitioning and transverse diffusion during rarefied travel on an experimental hillslopeShort communication: Runout of rock avalanches limited by basal friction but controlled by fragmentationRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 1: TheoryRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 2: AnalysisRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 3: EntropyRarefied particle motions on hillslopes – Part 4: PhilosophyImplications of the ongoing rock uplift in NW Himalayan interiors
Benjamin Lehmann, Robert S. Anderson, Xavier Bodin, Diego Cusicanqui, Pierre G. Valla, and Julien Carcaillet
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 605–633,Short summary
Rock glaciers are some of the most frequently occurring landforms containing ice in mountain environments. Here, we use field observations, analysis of aerial and satellite images, and dating methods to investigate the activity of the rock glacier of the Vallon de la Route in the French Alps. Our results suggest that the rock glacier is characterized by two major episodes of activity and that the rock glacier system promotes the maintenance of mountain erosion.
Elena Serra, Pierre G. Valla, Romain Delunel, Natacha Gribenski, Marcus Christl, and Naki Akçar
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 493–512,Short summary
Alpine landscapes are transformed by several erosion processes. 10Be concentrations measured in river sediments at the outlet of a basin represent a powerful tool to quantify how fast the catchment erodes. We measured erosion rates within the Dora Baltea catchments (western Italian Alps). Our results show that erosion is governed by topography, bedrock resistance and glacial imprint. The Mont Blanc massif has the highest erosion and therefore dominates the sediment flux of the Dora Baltea river.
Fiona J. Clubb, Eliot F. Weir, and Simon M. Mudd
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 437–456,Short summary
River valleys are important components of mountain systems: they are the most fertile part of landscapes and store sediment which is transported from mountains to surrounding basins. Our knowledge of the location and shape of valleys is hindered by our ability to measure them over large areas. We present a new method for measuring the width of mountain valleys continuously along river channels from digital topography and show that our method can be used to test common models of river widening.
Madison M. Douglas, Gen K. Li, Woodward W. Fischer, Joel C. Rowland, Preston C. Kemeny, A. Joshua West, Jon Schwenk, Anastasia P. Piliouras, Austin J. Chadwick, and Michael P. Lamb
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 421–435,Short summary
Arctic rivers erode into permafrost and mobilize organic carbon, which can react to form greenhouse gasses or be re-buried in floodplain deposits. We collected samples on a permafrost floodplain in Alaska to determine if more carbon is eroded or deposited by river meandering. The floodplain contained a mixture of young carbon fixed by the biosphere and old, re-deposited carbon. Thus, sediment storage may allow Arctic river floodplains to retain aged organic carbon even when permafrost thaws.
Maarten G. Kleinhans, Lonneke Roelofs, Steven A. H. Weisscher, Ivar R. Lokhorst, and Lisanne Braat
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 367–381,Short summary
Floodplain formation in estuaries limit the ebb and flood flow, reducing channel migration and shortening the tidally influenced reach. Vegetation establishment on bars reduces local flow velocity and concentrates flow into channels, while mudflats fill accommodation space and reduce channel migration. These results are based on experimental estuaries in the Metronome facility supported by numerical flow modelling.
Xingyu Chen, Marwan A. Hassan, and Xudong Fu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 349–366,Short summary
We compiled a large image dataset containing more than 125 000 sediments and developed a model (GrainID) based on convolutional neural networks to measure individual grain size from images. The model was calibrated on flume and natural stream images covering a wide range of fluvial environments. The model showed high performance compared with other methods. Our model showed great potential for grain size measurements from a small patch of sediment in a flume to a watershed-scale drone survey.
Harrison J. Gray, Christopher B. DuRoss, Sylvia R. Nicovich, and Ryan D. Gold
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 329–348,Short summary
Some types of big earthquakes create small cliffs or
fault scarps∼1–3 m in height, where sediments can pile up and create deposits we call
colluvial wedges. Geologists will look at colluvial wedges and use them to understand how often big earthquakes occur. Here we made a computer simulation to find out if the way we think colluvial wedges form works with physics. We found that it does in theory, but there are conditions in which it may be more complicated than we expected.
William H. Booker and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 247–260,Short summary
Channel behaviour is a qualitative aspect of river research that needs development to produce a framework of analysis between and within types of channels. We seek to produce a quantitative metric that can capture how a channel changes using a pair of experiments and collecting easy to obtain data. We demonstrate that this new technique is capable of discerning between river types and may provide a new tool with which we may describe channel behaviour.
Yiran Wang, Michael E. Oskin, Youli Li, and Huiping Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 191–208,Short summary
Beida River has an over-steepened reach presently located 10 km upstream of the North Qilian mountain front. It was formed because river incising into the bedrocks inside the mountain cannot keep up with river incising into the soft sediment in the basin. We suggest this over-steepened reach represents a fast incision period 3–4 kyr ago, deepening the canyon for ~35 m within ~700 years. The formation of this reach corresponds to a humid period related to strong Southeast Asian Monsoon influence.
Shiva P. Pudasaini and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 165–189,Short summary
We present the first physics-based general landslide velocity model incorporating internal deformation and external forces. Voellmy–inviscid Burgers' equations are specifications of the novel advective–dissipative system. Unified analytical solutions constitute a new foundation of landslide velocity, providing key information to instantly estimate impact forces and describe breaking waves and folding, revealing that landslide dynamics are architectured by advection and reigned by forcing.
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Many studies on modeling landform evolution have focused on mountain ranges, while large parts of Earth's surface are quite flat and alluvial plains have been preferred locations for human settlements. Conducting large-scale simulations of fluvial erosion and sediment transport, this study reveals that rivers in a tectonically inactive foreland are much more dynamic than rivers in a mountain range, where the local redistribution of deposits in the foreland is the main driver of the dynamics.
Changbin Lim, Soonmi Hwang, and Jung Lyul Lee
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 151–163,Short summary
Recently, along the east coast of South Korea, seasonal beach erosion has been induced by structures which severely block the supply of sand from the upstream side. This study proposes a coastal solution that can predict the maximum indentation point in downdrift erosion formed downstream of groins by applying a parabolic bay shape equation (PBSE).
Tim Steffen, Matthias Huss, Rebekka Estermann, Elias Hodel, and Daniel Farinotti
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurfShort summary
Climate change is rapidly altering high-alpine landscapes. The formation of glacier lakes in areas left behind by glacier retreat, is one of the many consequences. Here, we provide an estimate for the number, size, time of emergence, as well as sediment infill of future glacier lakes that will emerge in the Swiss Alps. We estimate that up to 683 potential lakes could emerge over the course of the 21st century, with the potential to hold a total water volume of up to 1.16 km3.
Bernd Etzelmüller, Justyna Czekirda, Florence Magnin, Pierre-Allain Duvillard, Ludovic Ravanel, Emanuelle Malet, Andreas Aspaas, Lene Kristensen, Ingrid Skrede, Gudrun D. Majala, Benjamin Jacobs, Johannes Leinauer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Martina Böhme, Reginald Hermanns, Harald Ø. Eriksen, Tom Rune Lauknes, Michael Krautblatter, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 97–129,Short summary
This paper is a multi-authored study documenting the possible existence of permafrost in permanently monitored rockslides in Norway for the first time by combining a multitude of field data, including geophysical surveys in rock walls. The paper discusses the possible role of thermal regime and rockslide movement, and it evaluates the possible impact of atmospheric warming on rockslide dynamics in Norwegian mountains.
Kevin Pierce, Marwan Hassan, and Rui Ferreira
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurfShort summary
We describe the flow of sediment in river channels by replacing the complicated details of the turbulent water by probability arguments. Our major conclusions are that (1) sediment transport can be related simply to the movements of individual sediment grains; (2) transport rates in river channels is inherently uncertain due to turbulence; and (3) particle movement in rivers is directly analogous to a number of phenomena which we understand relatively well, such as molecules moving in the air.
Yizhang Wei, Yining Chen, Jufei Qiu, Zeng Zhou, Peng Yao, Qin Jiang, Zheng Gong, Giovanni Coco, Ian Townend, and Changkuan Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 65–80,Short summary
The barrier tidal basin is increasingly altered by human activity and sea-level rise. These environmental changes probably lead to the emergence or disappearance of islands, yet the effect of rocky islands on the evolution of tidal basins remains poorly investigated. Using numerical experiments, we explore the evolution of tidal basins under varying numbers and locations of islands. This work provides insights for predicting the response of barrier tidal basins in a changing environment.
Marc J. P. Gouw and Marc P. Hijma
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 43–64,Short summary
If you were to navigate an entire delta by boat, you would clearly see that the general characteristics of the channels change throughout the delta. The drivers behind these changes have been studied extensively. Field studies encompassing the entire delta are rare but give important insights into these drivers that can help other researchers. The most important drivers are channel lateral-migration rate, channel-belt longevity, creation of accommodation space and inherited floodplain width.
Yan Zhong, Qiao Liu, Matthew Westoby, Yong Nie, Francesca Pellicciotti, Bo Zhang, Jialun Cai, Guoxiang Liu, Haijun Liao, and Xuyang Lu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 23–42,Short summary
Slope failures exist in many paraglacial regions and are the main manifestation of the interaction between debris-covered glaciers and slopes. We mapped paraglacial slope failures (PSFs) along the Hailuogou Glacier (HLG), Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We argue that the formation, evolution, and current status of these typical PSFs are generally related to glacier history and paraglacial geomorphological adjustments, and influenced by the fluctuation of climate conditions.
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Erwin Rottler, Theresa Blume, Johannes Schöber, and Axel Bronstert
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Climate change will fundamentally alter glaciated high alpine areas, but how this affects river sediments is still unclear. In this study, we investigated data of the past 15 years and found that areas above 2500 m are crucial for sediment transport in rivers draining three glaciated catchments in the Ötztal, Austria, while summer rainstorms were less influential for sediment dynamics than glaciers. Our findings provide a baseline for studies on future changes of high alpine sediment dynamics.
Sophie Bodek and Douglas J. Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1531–1543,Short summary
As rocks are transported, they undergo two attrition mechanisms: chipping, shallow cracking at low collision energies; and fragmentation, significant fracture growth from high-energy impacts. We examine the mass and shape evolution of concrete particles in a rotating drum to experimentally delineate the boundary between chipping and fragmentation. By connecting the mechanics of these attrition processes to resulting shape evolution, we can use particle shape to infer past transport conditions.
Jennifer R. Shadrick, Martin D. Hurst, Matthew D. Piggott, Bethany G. Hebditch, Alexander J. Seal, Klaus M. Wilcken, and Dylan H. Rood
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1505–1529,Short summary
Here we use topographic and 10Be concentration data to optimise a coastal evolution model. Cliff retreat rates are calculated for two UK sites for the past 8000 years and, for the first time, highlight a strong link between the rate of sea level rise and long-term cliff retreat rates. This method enables us to study past cliff response to sea level rise and so to greatly improve forecasts of future responses to accelerations in sea level rise that will result from climate change.
Jeongyeon Han and Wonsuck Kim
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
A levee-building model is presented to demonstrate the effects of flood conditions on levee slope, linking with river avulsion processes. Input grain size and levee slope are positively correlated with avulsion frequency, but overflow velocity is inversely related to it. High levee slopes develop local avulsions whereas low slopes develop regional avulsions. The link between the levee geometry and avulsion behaviours provides a better assessment of the flood hazards triggered by avulsion.
Marco Piantini, Florent Gimbert, Hervé Bellot, and Alain Recking
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1423–1439,Short summary
We carry out laboratory experiments to investigate the formation and propagation dynamics of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain rivers. We show that the ability of a self-formed deposit to destabilize and generate sediment pulses depends on the sand content of the mixture, while each pulse turns out to be formed by a front, a body, and a tail. Seismic measurements reveal a complex and non-unique dependency between seismic power and sediment pulse transport characteristics.
Fumitoshi Imaizumi, Atsushi Ikeda, Kazuki Yamamoto, and Okihiro Ohsaka
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1381–1398,Short summary
The rainfall threshold for debris flow occurrence was evaluated on Mt. Fuji, Japan. Debris flows during frozen periods were triggered by a smaller magnitude of rainfall than during unfrozen periods. During unfrozen periods, the threshold of maximum hourly rainfall intensity triggering debris flow was higher when the volume of channel deposits was larger. The results suggest that the occurrence of frozen ground needs to be monitored for better debris flow disaster mitigation in cold regions.
Víctor Cartelle, Natasha L. M. Barlow, David M. Hodgson, Freek S. Busschers, Kim M. Cohen, Bart M. L. Meijninger, and Wessel P. van Kesteren
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1399–1421,Short summary
Reconstructing the growth and decay of past ice sheets is critical to understand relationships between global climate and sea-level change. We take advantage of large wind-farm datasets in the southern North Sea to investigate buried landscapes left by ice sheet advance and retreat occurring about 160 000 years ago. We demonstrate the utility of offshore wind-farm data in refining palaeo-ice sheet margin limits and providing insight into the processes influencing marginal ice sheet dynamics.
Melisa A. Diaz, Lee B. Corbett, Paul R. Bierman, Byron J. Adams, Diana H. Wall, Ian D. Hogg, Noah Fierer, and W. Berry Lyons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1363–1380,Short summary
We collected soil surface samples and depth profiles every 5 cm (up to 30 cm) from 11 ice-free areas along the Shackleton Glacier, a major outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), and measured meteoric beryllium-10 and nitrate concentrations to understand the relationship between salts and beryllium-10. This relationship can help inform wetting history, landscape disturbance, and exposure duration.
Chiu H. Cheng, Jaco C. de Smit, Greg S. Fivash, Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher, Bas W. Borsje, and Karline Soetaert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1335–1346,Short summary
Shells are biogenic particles that are widespread throughout natural sandy environments and can affect the bed roughness and seabed erodibility. As studies are presently lacking, we experimentally measured ripple formation and migration using natural sand with increasing volumes of shell material under unidirectional flow in a racetrack flume. We show that shells expedite the onset of sediment transport, reduce ripple dimensions and slow their migration rate.
Christopher R. Hackney, Grigorios Vasilopoulos, Sokchhay Heng, Vasudha Darbari, Samuel Walker, and Daniel R. Parsons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1323–1334,Short summary
Unsustainable sand mining poses a threat to the stability of river channels. We use satellite imagery to estimate volumes of material removed from the Mekong River, Cambodia, over the period 2016–2020. We demonstrate that current rates of extraction now exceed previous estimates for the entire Mekong Basin and significantly exceed the volume of sand naturally transported by the river. Our work highlights the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring sand mining activity over large areas.
Xiangang Jiang, Haiguang Cheng, Lei Gao, and Weiming Liu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1263–1277,Short summary
Boulder bars are a common form of riverbed morphology which can be affected by outburst flood. However, few studies have focused on boulder bars' formation process and development characteristics during landslide dam failure. In this paper, eight groups of dam failure experiments were carried out to study the development and geometry characteristics of boulder bars during and after dam failure. Moreover, the relationships between geometry parameters of boulder bars are investigated.
Wentao Yang, Jian Fang, and Jing Liu-Zeng
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1251–1262,Short summary
The eastern Tibetan Plateau is an ideal place to study interactions among different geomorphic drivers. We report the impacts of two 2018 landslide-lake outburst floods up to 100 km distance downstream of the Jinsha River. By using remote sensing images, we found that the 2018 floods caused many hillslopes to slump during the prolonged period afterwards. The finding could help us to obtain a holistic picture of LLF impacts and improve geomorphic models of landscape evolution.
Michael Itzkin, Laura J. Moore, Peter Ruggiero, Sally D. Hacker, and Reuben G. Biel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1223–1237,Short summary
Studies of the impact of storms on dunes typically focus on the importance of dune elevation, here we analyze the protective services offered by the dune height and width, the morphology of the beach fronting the dune, and artificial dune construction via the use of sand fences. We find that dune volume loss most strongly correlates to beach width rather than dune shape, although when beach width is controlled for low and wide dunes offer greater protection than tall and narrow dunes.
Philipp Mamot, Samuel Weber, Saskia Eppinger, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1125–1151,Short summary
The mechanical response of permafrost degradation on high-mountain rock slope stability has not been calculated in a numerical model yet. We present the first approach for a model with thermal and mechanical input data derived from laboratory and field work, and existing concepts. This is applied to a test site at the Zugspitze, Germany. A numerical sensitivity analysis provides the first critical stability thresholds related to the rock temperature, slope angle and fracture network orientation.
Rose V. Palermo, Anastasia Piliouras, Travis E. Swanson, Andrew D. Ashton, and David Mohrig
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1111–1123,Short summary
At Sargent Beach, Texas, USA, a rapidly eroding soft-sediment cliff system, we study the planform evolution of the cliff face in response to storms and sediment cover. Through this analysis, we characterize the feedbacks between morphology and retreat rate of a cliff face. We find that after a storm event, the roughness and sinuosity of the cliff face increase, which sustains higher retreat rates for years following.
Sarah Anne Schanz and Armistead Peyton Colee
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
We dated 187 earthflows to determine how they impacted salmon habitat in the Teanaway basin, central Washington State, USA. We developed a new method to date earthflows that uses the texture and directionality of the landscape. Earthflows were active 3-5000 years ago, with some active in the last 1000 years. The period of earthflow activity coincides with climate change as well as large salmon populations, suggesting the wide floodplains formed by earthflows overall increased habitat.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 977–994,Short summary
Alpine rockwalls are affected by weathering processes that result in rock and fracture deformation. This deformation decreases rockwall stability with time. I installed crackmeters along a topographic gradient to identify the spatial and temporal variation of weathering processes. My data show that elevation-dependent snow cover, topographic factors and fracture dipping control the frequency and magnitude of weathering processes and resulting rock kinematics.
Odin Marc, Jens M. Turowski, and Patrick Meunier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 995–1011,Short summary
The size of grains delivered to rivers is an essential parameter for understanding erosion and sediment transport and their related hazards. In mountains, landslides deliver these rock fragments, but few studies have analyzed the landslide properties that control the resulting sizes. We present measurements on 17 landslides from Taiwan and show that their grain sizes depend on rock strength, landslide depth and drop height, thereby validating and updating a previous theory on fragmentation.
Misa Yasumiishi, Taku Nishimura, Jared Aldstadt, Sean J. Bennett, and Thomas Bittner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 861–893,Short summary
Topographic effects on radioactive contamination in a forested area were quantitatively examined using soil core samples collected in a village in Fukushima, Japan. The results confirmed that local topography influences the contamination patterns in soils, and its effects vary depending on the combinations of the topographic parameters. This finding suggests that topographic characteristics should be considered carefully in future environmental radioactive risk assessments.
Maxwell P. Dahlquist and A. Joshua West
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Himalayan rivers are full of giant boulders that almost never move except during glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs therefore must be very important for driving erosion. GLOFs are rare, so little is known about how they control erosion long-term. We analyzed rivers in the Nepal Himalaya and found the slopes and widths of channels and valleys suggest GLOFs as the dominant means of erosion. This is often unaccounted for in erosion and landscape evolution studies and should be considered.
Jingtao Lai and Alison M. Anders
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 845–859,Short summary
Glaciers are strong erosive agents, and they have created many unique landforms in mountain belts. Climate has been viewed as a primary control on glacial erosion, yet our understanding of the mechanism by which climate impacts glacial erosion remains limited. Using computer simulations, we find that climate controls glacial erosion by modulating the temperature of the basal ice. Our results suggest that a warm and/or wet climate can create warm basal ice and, therefore, enhance erosion.
Gilles Brocard, Jane Kathrin Willenbring, Tristan Salles, Michael Cosca, Axel Guttiérez-Orrego, Noé Cacao Chiquín, Sergio Morán-Ical, and Christian Teyssier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 795–822,Short summary
The rise of a mountain affects the circulation of water, both in the atmosphere and over the land surface, thereby affecting the erosion of the land surface. We document how the rise of a mountain in central Guatemala has affected the erosion of an older range nearby. The new range intercepts precipitation formerly delivered to the older range. River response to the uplift of the new range has decreased incision across the older one. Both have reduced hillslope erosion over the old range.
Elena T. Bruni, Richard F. Ott, Vincenzo Picotti, Negar Haghipour, Karl W. Wegmann, and Sean F. Gallen
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 771–793,Short summary
The Klados River catchment contains seemingly overlarge, well-preserved alluvial terraces and fans. Unlike previous studies, we argue that the deposits formed in the Holocene based on their position relative to a paleoshoreline uplifted in 365 CE and seven radiocarbon dates. We also find that constant sediment supply from high-lying landslide deposits disconnected the valley from regional tectonics and climate controls, which resulted in fan and terrace formation guided by stochastic events.
Kimberly Litwin Miller and Douglas Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 755–770,Short summary
We conducted experiments to investigate the mechanics of sediment attrition due to collisions with the channel bed during downstream transport. During this process, the grains become rounder and smaller, changing the overall distribution of sediment in the river. In this work we examine how material properties play a role in the breakdown of sediment due to energetic collisions and the fine particles that are produced when chipped off of larger grains.
Nate A. Mitchell and Brian J. Yanites
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 723–753,Short summary
A landscape's appearance reflects the properties of the underlying bedrock. For example, strong bedrock can lead to steep slopes. Recent work has shown, however, that in areas with mixed rock types the stronger bedrock can have lower slopes. In this study, we use numerical models of bedrock river erosion to show why this change in behavior occurs. We also present a new approach for estimating bedrock erodibility. This new approach can allow for new opportunities in the field of geomorphology.
Sarah G. W. Williams and David J. Furbish
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 701–721,Short summary
Particle motions and travel distances prior to deposition on hillslope surfaces depend on a balance of gravitational and frictional forces. We elaborate how particle energy is partitioned and dissipated during travel using measurements of particle travel distances supplemented with high-speed imaging of drop–impact–rebound experiments. Results show that particle shape plays a dominant role in how energy is partitioned during impact with a surface and how far particles travel in two dimensions.
Øystein T. Haug, Matthias Rosenau, Michael Rudolf, Karen Leever, and Onno Oncken
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 665–672,Short summary
The runout of rock avalanches scales with their volume but also shows a considerable variation for avalanches with similar volumes. Here we show that besides size-dependent weakening mechanisms, fragmentation can account for the observed variability in runout. We use laboratory-scale experimental avalanches to simulate and analyse the role of fragmentation. We find that fragmentation consumes energy but also increases avalanche mobility. It does so systematically and predictably.
David Jon Furbish, Joshua J. Roering, Tyler H. Doane, Danica L. Roth, Sarah G. W. Williams, and Angel M. Abbott
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 539–576,Short summary
Sediment particles skitter down steep hillslopes on Earth and Mars. Particles gain speed in going downhill but are slowed down and sometimes stop due to collisions with the rough surface. The likelihood of stopping depends on the energetics of speeding up (heating) versus slowing down (cooling). Statistical physics predicts that particle travel distances are described by a generalized Pareto distribution whose form varies with the Kirkby number – the ratio of heating to cooling.
David Jon Furbish, Sarah G. W. Williams, Danica L. Roth, Tyler H. Doane, and Joshua J. Roering
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 577–613,Short summary
The generalized Pareto distribution of particle travel distances on steep hillslopes, as described in a companion paper (Furbish et al., 2021a), is entirely consistent with measurements of travel distances obtained from laboratory and field-based experiments, supplemented with high-speed imaging and audio recordings that highlight the effects of bumpety-bump particle motions. Particle size and shape, in concert with surface roughness, strongly influence particle energetics and deposition.
David Jon Furbish, Sarah G. W. Williams, and Tyler H. Doane
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 615–628,Short summary
The generalized Pareto distribution of particle travel distances on steep hillslopes, as described in two companion papers (Furbish et al., 2021a, 2021b), is a maximum entropy distribution. This simply represents the most probable way that a great number of particles become distributed into distance states, subject to a fixed total energetic cost due to frictional effects of particle–surface collisions. The maximum entropy criterion is equivalent to a formal application of Occam's razor.
David Jon Furbish and Tyler H. Doane
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 629–664,Short summary
Using analyses of particle motions on steep hillslopes in three companion papers (Furbish et al., 2021a, 2021b, 2021c), we offer philosophical perspective on the merits of a statistical mechanics framework for describing sediment particle motions and transport, and the implications of rarefied versus continuum transport conditions. We highlight the mechanistic yet probabilistic nature of the approach, and the importance of tailoring the style of thinking to the process and scale of interest.
Saptarshi Dey, Rasmus C. Thiede, Arindam Biswas, Naveen Chauhan, Pritha Chakravarti, and Vikrant Jain
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 463–485,Short summary
Ongoing deformation of the Himalaya is not constrained to its southern extremity. With morphometric analysis using a high-resolution digital elevation model, satellite image analysis, luminescence chronology of fluvial terraces and field observations, we identify a zone of rapid rock uplift in the interior of the Kashmir Himalaya. Our results suggest active tectonic and structural control on the growth of topography in the Himalayan interiors over multi-millennial timescales.
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Bedload flux quantification remains challenging in river dynamics due to variable transport modes. We used a passive monitoring device to record the acoustic signals generated by the impacts of bedload particles with different transport modes, and established the relationship between the triggered signals and bedload characteristics. The findings of this study could improve our understanding of the monitoring system and bedload transport process, and contribute to bedload size classification.
Bedload flux quantification remains challenging in river dynamics due to variable transport...