Articles | Volume 7, issue 4
Research article
30 Oct 2019
Research article |  | 30 Oct 2019

Permafrost distribution in steep rock slopes in Norway: measurements, statistical modelling and implications for geomorphological processes

Florence Magnin, Bernd Etzelmüller, Sebastian Westermann, Ketil Isaksen, Paula Hilger, and Reginald L. Hermanns

Related authors

Estimating surface water availability in high mountain rock slopes using a numerical energy balance model
Matan Ben-Asher, Florence Magnin, Sebastian Westermann, Josué Bock, Emmanuel Malet, Johan Berthet, Ludovic Ravanel, and Philip Deline
Earth Surf. Dynam., 11, 899–915,,, 2023
Short summary
Post-Little Ice Age rock wall permafrost evolution in Norway
Justyna Czekirda, Bernd Etzelmüller, Sebastian Westermann, Ketil Isaksen, and Florence Magnin
The Cryosphere, 17, 2725–2754,,, 2023
Short summary
Effects of topographic and meteorological parameters on the surface area loss of ice aprons in the Mont Blanc massif (European Alps)
Suvrat Kaushik, Ludovic Ravanel, Florence Magnin, Yajing Yan, Emmanuel Trouve, and Diego Cusicanqui
The Cryosphere, 16, 4251–4271,,, 2022
Short summary
S. Kaushik, S. Leinss, L. Ravanel, E. Trouvé, Y. Yan, and F. Magnin
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-3-2022, 325–332,,, 2022
Permafrost in monitored unstable rock slopes in Norway – new insights from temperature and surface velocity measurements, geophysical surveying, and ground temperature modelling
Bernd Etzelmüller, Justyna Czekirda, Florence Magnin, Pierre-Allain Duvillard, Ludovic Ravanel, Emanuelle Malet, Andreas Aspaas, Lene Kristensen, Ingrid Skrede, Gudrun D. Majala, Benjamin Jacobs, Johannes Leinauer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Martina Böhme, Reginald Hermanns, Harald Ø. Eriksen, Tom Rune Lauknes, Michael Krautblatter, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 97–129,,, 2022
Short summary

Related subject area

Physical: Geomorphology (including all aspects of fluvial, coastal, aeolian, hillslope and glacial geomorphology)
Dimensionless argument: a narrow grain size range near 2 mm plays a special role in river sediment transport and morphodynamics
Gary Parker, Chenge An, Michael P. Lamb, Marcelo H. Garcia, Elizabeth H. Dingle, and Jeremy G. Venditti
Earth Surf. Dynam., 12, 367–380,,, 2024
Short summary
Path length and sediment transport estimation from DEMs of difference: a signal processing approach
Lindsay Marie Capito, Enrico Pandrin, Walter Bertoldi, Nicola Surian, and Simone Bizzi
Earth Surf. Dynam., 12, 321–345,,, 2024
Short summary
Influence of cohesive clay on wave–current ripple dynamics captured in a 3D phase diagram
Xuxu Wu, Jonathan Malarkey, Roberto Fernández, Jaco H. Baas, Ellen Pollard, and Daniel R. Parsons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 12, 231–247,,, 2024
Short summary
Statistical characterization of erosion and sediment transport mechanics in shallow tidal environments – Part 1: Erosion dynamics
Andrea D'Alpaos, Davide Tognin, Laura Tommasini, Luigi D'Alpaos, Andrea Rinaldo, and Luca Carniello
Earth Surf. Dynam., 12, 181–199,,, 2024
Short summary
Statistical characterization of erosion and sediment transport mechanics in shallow tidal environments – Part 2: Suspended sediment dynamics
Davide Tognin, Andrea D'Alpaos, Luigi D'Alpaos, Andrea Rinaldo, and Luca Carniello
Earth Surf. Dynam., 12, 201–218,,, 2024
Short summary

Cited articles

Allen, S. K., Gruber, S., and Owens, I. F.: Exploring steep bedrock permafrost and its relationship with recent slope failures in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, Permafrost Periglac., 20, 345–356,, 2009. 
Berthling, I. and Etzelmüller, B.: The concept of cryo-conditioning in landscape evolution, Quaternary Res., 75, 378–384, 2011. 
Blikra, L. H. and Christiansen, H. H.: A field-based model of permafrost-controlled rockslide deformation in northern Norway, Geomorphology, 208, 34–49,, 2014. 
Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges, The Cryosphere, 6, 125–140,, 2012a. 
Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: Permafrost distribution in the European Alps: calculation and evaluation of an index map and summary statistics, The Cryosphere, 6, 807–820,, 2012b. 
Short summary
This study proposes the first permafrost (i.e. ground with temperature permanently < 0 °C) map covering the steep rock slopes of Norway. It was created by using rock temperature data collected at the near surface of 25 rock walls spread across the country between 2010 and 2018. The map shows that permafrost mostly exists above 1300–1400 m a.s.l. in southern Norway and close to sea level in northern Norway. The results have strong potential for the study of rock wall sliding and failure.