Articles | Volume 7, issue 3
Research article 02 Sep 2019
Research article | 02 Sep 2019
Evaluating the potential of post-processing kinematic (PPK) georeferencing for UAV-based structure- from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry and surface change detection
He Zhang et al.
No articles found.
Lander Van Tricht, Philippe Huybrechts, Jonas Van Breedam, Alexander Vanhulle, Kristof Van Oost, and Harry Zekollari
The Cryosphere, 15, 4445–4464,Short summary
We conducted innovative research on the use of drones to determine the surface mass balance (SMB) of two glaciers. Considering appropriate spatial scales, we succeeded in determining the SMB in the ablation area with large accuracy. Consequently, we are convinced that our method and the use of drones to monitor the mass balance of a glacier’s ablation area can be an add-on to stake measurements in order to obtain a broader picture of the heterogeneity of the SMB of glaciers.
Sebastian Doetterl, Rodrigue K. Asifiwe, Geert Baert, Fernando Bamba, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Benjamin Bukombe, Georg Cadisch, Matthew Cooper, Landry N. Cizungu, Alison Hoyt, Clovis Kabaseke, Karsten Kalbitz, Laurent Kidinda, Annina Maier, Moritz Mainka, Julia Mayrock, Daniel Muhindo, Basile B. Mujinya, Serge M. Mukotanyi, Leon Nabahungu, Mario Reichenbach, Boris Rewald, Johan Six, Anna Stegmann, Laura Summerauer, Robin Unseld, Bernard Vanlauwe, Kristof Van Oost, Kris Verheyen, Cordula Vogel, Florian Wilken, and Peter Fiener
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4133–4153,Short summary
The African Tropics are hotspots of modern-day land use change and are of great relevance for the global carbon cycle. Here, we present data collected as part of the DFG-funded project TropSOC along topographic, land use, and geochemical gradients in the eastern Congo Basin and the Albertine Rift. Our database contains spatial and temporal data on soil, vegetation, environmental properties, and land management collected from 136 pristine tropical forest and cropland plots between 2017 and 2020.
Pengzhi Zhao, Daniel J. Fallu, Sara Cucchiaro, Paolo Tarolli, Clive Waddington, David Cockcroft, Lisa Snape, Andreas Lang, Sebastian Doetterl, Antony G. Brown, and Kristof Van Oost
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
We investigate the factors controlling SOC stability and temperature sensitivity of abandoned prehistoric agricultural terrace soils. Results suggest that the burial of former topsoil due to terracing provided a SOC stabilization mechanism. Both the soil C : N ratio and SOC mineral protection regulate soil SOC temperature sensitivity. However, which mechanism predominantly controls SOC temperature sensitivity depends on the age of the buried terrace soils.
Liesa Brosens, Benjamin Campforts, Gerard Govers, Emilien Aldana-Jague, Vao Fenotiana Razanamahandry, Tantely Razafimbelo, Tovonarivo Rafolisy, and Liesbet Jacobs
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurfShort summary
Obtaining accurate information on the volume of geomorphic features typically requires high-resolution topographic data, which is often not available. Here, we show that the globally available 12 m TanDEM-X DEM can be used to accurately estimate gully volumes after applying a correction. This allows to get a first estimate of the amount of sediment that has been mobilized by large gullies (lavaka) in central Madagascar over the past 70 years.
Veerle Vanacker, Armando Molina, Miluska Rosas-Barturen, Vivien Bonnesoeur, Francisco Román-Dañobeytia, Boris Ochoa-Tocachi, and Wouter Buytaert
Preprint under review for SOILShort summary
The Andes region is prone to natural hazards due to its steep topography and climatic variability. Anthropogenic activities further exacerbate environmental hazards and risks. This systematic review synthesizes our knowledge on the effectiveness of nature-based solutions. Conservation of natural vegetation and implementation of soil and water conservation measures had significant and positive effects on soil organic carbon and erosion mitigation.
Florian Wilken, Peter Fiener, Michael Ketterer, Katrin Meusburger, Daniel Iragi Muhindo, Kristof van Oost, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 399–414,Short summary
This study demonstrates the usability of fallout radionuclides 239Pu and 240Pu as a tool to assess soil degradation processes in tropical Africa, which is particularly valuable in regions with limited infrastructure and challenging monitoring conditions for landscape-scale soil degradation monitoring. The study shows no indication of soil redistribution in forest sites but substantial soil redistribution in cropland (sedimentation >40 cm in 55 years) with high variability.
Simon Baumgartner, Marijn Bauters, Matti Barthel, Travis W. Drake, Landry C. Ntaboba, Basile M. Bazirake, Johan Six, Pascal Boeckx, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 7, 83–94,Short summary
We compared stable isotope signatures of soil profiles in different forest ecosystems within the Congo Basin to assess ecosystem-level differences in N cycling, and we examined the local effect of topography on the isotopic signature of soil N. Soil δ15N profiles indicated that the N cycling in in the montane forest is more closed, whereas the lowland forest and Miombo woodland experienced a more open N cycle. Topography only alters soil δ15N values in forests with high erosional forces.
Laura Summerauer, Philipp Baumann, Leonardo Ramirez-Lopez, Matti Barthel, Marijn Bauters, Benjamin Bukombe, Mario Reichenbach, Pascal Boeckx, Elizabeth Kearsley, Kristof Van Oost, Bernard Vanlauwe, Dieudonné Chiragaga, Aimé Bisimwa Heri-Kazi, Pieter Moonen, Andrew Sila, Keith Shepherd, Basile Bazirake Mujinya, Eric Van Ranst, Geert Baert, Sebastian Doetterl, and Johan Six
Revised manuscript accepted for SOILShort summary
We present a soil mid-infrared library with over 1,800 samples from central Africa in order to facilitate soil analyses of this highly understudied yet critical area. Together with an existing continental library, we demonstrate a regional analysis and geographical extrapolation to predict total carbon and nitrogen. Our results show highly accurate predictions and highlight the value that our library contributes to existing data. Our library is openly available for public use and for expansion.
Simon Baumgartner, Matti Barthel, Travis William Drake, Marijn Bauters, Isaac Ahanamungu Makelele, John Kalume Mugula, Laura Summerauer, Nora Gallarotti, Landry Cizungu Ntaboba, Kristof Van Oost, Pascal Boeckx, Sebastian Doetterl, Roland Anton Werner, and Johan Six
Biogeosciences, 17, 6207–6218,Short summary
Soil respiration is an important carbon flux and key process determining the net ecosystem production of terrestrial ecosystems. The Congo Basin lacks studies quantifying carbon fluxes. We measured soil CO2 fluxes from different forest types in the Congo Basin and were able to show that, even though soil CO2 fluxes are similarly high in lowland and montane forests, the drivers were different: soil moisture in montane forests and C availability in the lowland forests.
Florian Wilken, Michael Ketterer, Sylvia Koszinski, Michael Sommer, and Peter Fiener
SOIL, 6, 549–564,Short summary
Soil redistribution by water and tillage erosion processes on arable land is a major threat to sustainable use of soil resources. We unravel the role of tillage and water erosion from fallout radionuclide (239+240Pu) activities in a ground moraine landscape. Our results show that tillage erosion dominates soil redistribution processes and has a major impact on the hydrological and sedimentological connectivity, which started before the onset of highly mechanised farming since the 1960s.
Zhengang Wang, Jianxiu Qiu, and Kristof Van Oost
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4977–4992,Short summary
This study developed a spatially distributed carbon cycling model applicable in an eroding landscape. It includes all three carbon isotopes so that it is able to represent the carbon isotopic compositions. The model is able to represent the observations that eroding area is enriched in 13C and depleted of 14C compared to depositional area. Our simulations show that the spatial variability of carbon isotopic properties in an eroding landscape is mainly caused by the soil redistribution.
Benjamin Campforts, Veerle Vanacker, Frédéric Herman, Matthias Vanmaercke, Wolfgang Schwanghart, Gustavo E. Tenorio, Patrick Willems, and Gerard Govers
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 447–470,Short summary
In this contribution, we explore the spatial determinants of bedrock river incision in the tropical Andes. The model results illustrate the problem of confounding between climatic and lithological variables, such as rock strength. Incorporating rock strength explicitly into river incision models strongly improves the explanatory power of all tested models and enables us to clarify the role of rainfall variability in controlling river incision rates.
Samuel Bouchoms, Zhengang Wang, Veerle Vanacker, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 5, 367–382,Short summary
Soil erosion has detrimental effects on soil fertility which can reduce carbon inputs coming from crops to soils. Our study integrated this effect into a model linking soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics to erosion and crop productivity. When compared to observations, the inclusion of productivity improved SOC loss predictions. Over centuries, ignoring crop productivity evolution in models could result in underestimating SOC loss and overestimating C exchanged with the atmosphere.
François Clapuyt, Veerle Vanacker, Marcus Christl, Kristof Van Oost, and Fritz Schlunegger
Solid Earth, 10, 1489–1503,Short summary
Using state-of-the-art geomorphic techniques, we quantified a 2-order of magnitude discrepancy between annual, decadal, and millennial sediment fluxes of a landslide-affected mountainous river catchment in the Swiss Alps. Our results illustrate that the impact of a single sediment pulse is strongly attenuated at larger spatial and temporal scales by sediment transport. The accumulation of multiple sediment pulses has rather a measurable impact on the regional pattern of sediment fluxes.
Peter Fiener, Florian Wilken, and Karl Auerswald
Adv. Geosci., 48, 31–48,Short summary
An 8-year dataset of erosion monitoring (e.g. agricultural management, rainfall, runoff, sediment delivery) is made available. It covers 14 adjoining and partly nested watersheds (sizes 1–14 ha) that were cultivated following integrated (4 crops) and organic farming (7 crops and grassland) practices. Drivers of erosion and runoff were determined and with high spatial and temporal detail. The data set closes the gap between plot research and watershed research.
Victoria Naipal, Philippe Ciais, Yilong Wang, Ronny Lauerwald, Bertrand Guenet, and Kristof Van Oost
Biogeosciences, 15, 4459–4480,Short summary
We seek to better understand the links between soil erosion by rainfall and the global carbon (C) cycle by coupling a soil erosion model to the C cycle of a land surface model. With this modeling approach we evaluate the effects of soil removal on soil C stocks in the presence of climate change and land use change. We find that accelerated soil erosion leads to a potential SOC removal flux of 74 ±18 Pg of C globally over the period AD 1850–2005, with significant impacts on the land C balance.
François Clapuyt, Veerle Vanacker, Fritz Schlunegger, and Kristof Van Oost
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 791–806,Short summary
This work aims at understanding the behaviour of an earth flow located in the Swiss Alps by reconstructing very accurately its topography over a 2-year period. Aerial photos taken from a drone, which are then processed using a computer vision algorithm, were used to derive the topographic datasets. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure, which is evolving over time.
Eric Laloy, Koen Beerten, Veerle Vanacker, Marcus Christl, Bart Rogiers, and Laurent Wouters
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 331–345,Short summary
Over very long timescales, 100 000 years or more, landscapes may drastically change. Sediments preserved in these landscapes have a cosmogenic radionuclide inventory that tell us when and how fast such changes took place. In this paper, we provide first evidence of an elevated long-term erosion rate of the northwestern Campine Plateau (lowland Europe), which can be explained by the loose nature of the subsoil.
Florian Wilken, Michael Sommer, Kristof Van Oost, Oliver Bens, and Peter Fiener
SOIL, 3, 83–94,Short summary
Model-based analyses of the effect of soil erosion on carbon (C) dynamics are associated with large uncertainties partly resulting from oversimplifications of erosion processes. This study evaluates the need for process-oriented modelling to analyse erosion-induced C fluxes in different catchments. The results underline the importance of a detailed representation of tillage and water erosion processes. For water erosion, grain-size-specific transport is essential to simulate lateral C fluxes.
Gerard Govers, Roel Merckx, Bas van Wesemael, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 3, 45–59,Short summary
We discuss pathways towards better soil protection in the 21st century. The efficacy of soil conservation technology is not a fundamental barrier for a more sustainable soil management. However, soil conservation is generally not directly beneficial to the farmer. We believe that the solution of this conundrum is a rapid, smart intensification of agriculture in the Global South. This will reduce the financial burden and will, at the same time, allow more effective conservation.
Florian Wilken, Peter Fiener, and Kristof Van Oost
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 113–124,Short summary
This study presents a model that accounts for preferential erosion and transport of sediment and soil organic carbon in agricultural landscapes. We applied the model to a small catchment in Belgium for a period of 100 years. After a thorough model evaluation, these simulations shows that sediment and carbon export are highly episodic and that the temporal variability is largely influenced by selective erosion and deposition.
Jianlin Zhao, Kristof Van Oost, Longqian Chen, and Gerard Govers
Biogeosciences, 13, 4735–4750,Short summary
We used a novel approach to reassess erosion rates on the CLP. We found that both current average topsoil erosion rates and the maximum magnitude of the erosion-induced carbon sink are overestimated on the CLP. Although average topsoil losses on the CLP are still high, a major increase in agricultural productivity occurred since 1980. Hence, erosion is currently not a direct threat to agricultural productivity on the CLP but the long-term effects of erosion on soil quality remain important.
Victoria Naipal, Christian Reick, Kristof Van Oost, Thomas Hoffmann, and Julia Pongratz
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 407–423,Short summary
We present a new large-scale coarse-resolution sediment budget model that is compatible with Earth system models and simulates sediment dynamics in floodplains and on hillslopes. We applied this model on the Rhine catchment for the last millennium, and found that the model reproduces the spatial distribution of sediment storage and the scaling relationships as found in observations. We also identified that land use change explains most of the temporal variability in sediment storage.
A. Molina, V. Vanacker, E. Brisson, D. Mora, and V. Balthazar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4201–4213,Short summary
Andean catchments play a key role in the provision of freshwater resources. The development of megacities in the inter-Andean valleys raises severe concerns about growing water scarcity. This study is one of the first long-term (1970s-now) analyses of the role of land cover and climate change on provision and regulation of streamflow in the tropical Andes. Forest conversion had the largest impact on streamflow, leading to a 10 % net decrease in streamflow over the last 40 years.
V. Naipal, C. Reick, J. Pongratz, and K. Van Oost
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2893–2913,Short summary
We adjusted the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors that are the triggers of erosion in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model to make the model better applicable at coarse resolution on a global scale. The adjusted RUSLE model compares much better to current high resolution estimates of soil erosion in the USA and Europe. It therefore provides a basis for estimating past and future global impacts of soil erosion on climate with the use of Earth system models.
F. Wiaux, M. Vanclooster, and K. Van Oost
Biogeosciences, 12, 4637–4649,Short summary
In this study, we highlight the role of soil physical conditions and gas transfer mechanisms and dynamics in the decomposition and storage of soil organic carbon in subsoil layers. To illustrate it, we measured the time series of soil temperature, moisture and CO2 concentration and calculated CO2 fluxes along 1 m depth soil profiles during 6 months throughout two contrasted soil profiles along a hillslope in the central loess belt of Belgium.
S. Doetterl, J.-T. Cornelis, J. Six, S. Bodé, S. Opfergelt, P. Boeckx, and K. Van Oost
Biogeosciences, 12, 1357–1371,Short summary
We link the mineralogy of soils affected by erosion and deposition to the distribution of soil carbon fractions, their turnover and microbial activity. We show that the weathering status of soils and their history are controlling the stabilization of carbon with minerals. After burial, aggregated C is preserved more efficiently while non-aggregated C can be released and younger C re-sequestered more easily. Weathering changes the effectiveness of stabilization mechanism limiting this C sink.
E. C. Brevik, A. Cerdà, J. Mataix-Solera, L. Pereg, J. N. Quinton, J. Six, and K. Van Oost
SOIL, 1, 117–129,Short summary
This paper provides a brief accounting of some of the many ways that the study of soils can be interdisciplinary, therefore giving examples of the types of papers we hope to see submitted to SOIL.
Z. Wang, K. Van Oost, A. Lang, T. Quine, W. Clymans, R. Merckx, B. Notebaert, and G. Govers
Biogeosciences, 11, 873–883,
T. Hoffmann, S. M. Mudd, K. van Oost, G. Verstraeten, G. Erkens, A. Lang, H. Middelkoop, J. Boyle, J. O. Kaplan, J. Willenbring, and R. Aalto
Earth Surf. Dynam., 1, 45–52,
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Melisa A. Diaz, Lee B. Corbett, Paul R. Bierman, Byron J. Adams, Diana H. Wall, Ian D. Hogg, Noah Fierer, and W. Berry Lyons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1363–1380,Short summary
We collected soil surface samples and depth profiles every 5 cm (up to 30 cm) from 11 ice-free areas along the Shackleton Glacier, a major outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), and measured meteoric beryllium-10 and nitrate concentrations to understand the relationship between salts and beryllium-10. This relationship can help inform wetting history, landscape disturbance, and exposure duration.
Chiu H. Cheng, Jaco C. de Smit, Greg S. Fivash, Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher, Bas W. Borsje, and Karline Soetaert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1335–1346,Short summary
Shells are biogenic particles that are widespread throughout natural sandy environments and can affect the bed roughness and seabed erodibility. As studies are presently lacking, we experimentally measured ripple formation and migration using natural sand with increasing volumes of shell material under unidirectional flow in a racetrack flume. We show that shells expedite the onset of sediment transport, reduce ripple dimensions and slow their migration rate.
Christopher R. Hackney, Grigorios Vasilopoulos, Sokchhay Heng, Vasudha Darbari, Samuel Walker, and Daniel R. Parsons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1323–1334,Short summary
Unsustainable sand mining poses a threat to the stability of river channels. We use satellite imagery to estimate volumes of material removed from the Mekong River, Cambodia, over the period 2016–2020. We demonstrate that current rates of extraction now exceed previous estimates for the entire Mekong Basin and significantly exceed the volume of sand naturally transported by the river. Our work highlights the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring sand mining activity over large areas.
Xiangang Jiang, Haiguang Cheng, Lei Gao, and Weiming Liu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1263–1277,Short summary
Boulder bars are a common form of riverbed morphology which can be affected by outburst flood. However, few studies have focused on boulder bars' formation process and development characteristics during landslide dam failure. In this paper, eight groups of dam failure experiments were carried out to study the development and geometry characteristics of boulder bars during and after dam failure. Moreover, the relationships between geometry parameters of boulder bars are investigated.
Wentao Yang, Jian Fang, and Jing Liu-Zeng
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1251–1262,Short summary
The eastern Tibetan Plateau is an ideal place to study interactions among different geomorphic drivers. We report the impacts of two 2018 landslide-lake outburst floods up to 100 km distance downstream of the Jinsha River. By using remote sensing images, we found that the 2018 floods caused many hillslopes to slump during the prolonged period afterwards. The finding could help us to obtain a holistic picture of LLF impacts and improve geomorphic models of landscape evolution.
Michael Itzkin, Laura J. Moore, Peter Ruggiero, Sally D. Hacker, and Reuben G. Biel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1223–1237,Short summary
Studies of the impact of storms on dunes typically focus on the importance of dune elevation, here we analyze the protective services offered by the dune height and width, the morphology of the beach fronting the dune, and artificial dune construction via the use of sand fences. We find that dune volume loss most strongly correlates to beach width rather than dune shape, although when beach width is controlled for low and wide dunes offer greater protection than tall and narrow dunes.
Philipp Mamot, Samuel Weber, Saskia Eppinger, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1125–1151,Short summary
The mechanical response of permafrost degradation on high-mountain rock slope stability has not been calculated in a numerical model yet. We present the first approach for a model with thermal and mechanical input data derived from laboratory and field work, and existing concepts. This is applied to a test site at the Zugspitze, Germany. A numerical sensitivity analysis provides the first critical stability thresholds related to the rock temperature, slope angle and fracture network orientation.
Rose V. Palermo, Anastasia Piliouras, Travis E. Swanson, Andrew D. Ashton, and David Mohrig
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1111–1123,Short summary
At Sargent Beach, Texas, USA, a rapidly eroding soft-sediment cliff system, we study the planform evolution of the cliff face in response to storms and sediment cover. Through this analysis, we characterize the feedbacks between morphology and retreat rate of a cliff face. We find that after a storm event, the roughness and sinuosity of the cliff face increase, which sustains higher retreat rates for years following.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 977–994,Short summary
Alpine rockwalls are affected by weathering processes that result in rock and fracture deformation. This deformation decreases rockwall stability with time. I installed crackmeters along a topographic gradient to identify the spatial and temporal variation of weathering processes. My data show that elevation-dependent snow cover, topographic factors and fracture dipping control the frequency and magnitude of weathering processes and resulting rock kinematics.
Odin Marc, Jens M. Turowski, and Patrick Meunier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 995–1011,Short summary
The size of grains delivered to rivers is an essential parameter for understanding erosion and sediment transport and their related hazards. In mountains, landslides deliver these rock fragments, but few studies have analyzed the landslide properties that control the resulting sizes. We present measurements on 17 landslides from Taiwan and show that their grain sizes depend on rock strength, landslide depth and drop height, thereby validating and updating a previous theory on fragmentation.
Misa Yasumiishi, Taku Nishimura, Jared Aldstadt, Sean J. Bennett, and Thomas Bittner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 861–893,Short summary
Topographic effects on radioactive contamination in a forested area were quantitatively examined using soil core samples collected in a village in Fukushima, Japan. The results confirmed that local topography influences the contamination patterns in soils, and its effects vary depending on the combinations of the topographic parameters. This finding suggests that topographic characteristics should be considered carefully in future environmental radioactive risk assessments.
Jingtao Lai and Alison M. Anders
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 845–859,Short summary
Glaciers are strong erosive agents, and they have created many unique landforms in mountain belts. Climate has been viewed as a primary control on glacial erosion, yet our understanding of the mechanism by which climate impacts glacial erosion remains limited. Using computer simulations, we find that climate controls glacial erosion by modulating the temperature of the basal ice. Our results suggest that a warm and/or wet climate can create warm basal ice and, therefore, enhance erosion.
Gilles Brocard, Jane Kathrin Willenbring, Tristan Salles, Michael Cosca, Axel Guttiérez-Orrego, Noé Cacao Chiquín, Sergio Morán-Ical, and Christian Teyssier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 795–822,Short summary
The rise of a mountain affects the circulation of water, both in the atmosphere and over the land surface, thereby affecting the erosion of the land surface. We document how the rise of a mountain in central Guatemala has affected the erosion of an older range nearby. The new range intercepts precipitation formerly delivered to the older range. River response to the uplift of the new range has decreased incision across the older one. Both have reduced hillslope erosion over the old range.
Elena T. Bruni, Richard F. Ott, Vincenzo Picotti, Negar Haghipour, Karl W. Wegmann, and Sean F. Gallen
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 771–793,Short summary
The Klados River catchment contains seemingly overlarge, well-preserved alluvial terraces and fans. Unlike previous studies, we argue that the deposits formed in the Holocene based on their position relative to a paleoshoreline uplifted in 365 CE and seven radiocarbon dates. We also find that constant sediment supply from high-lying landslide deposits disconnected the valley from regional tectonics and climate controls, which resulted in fan and terrace formation guided by stochastic events.
Kimberly Litwin Miller and Douglas Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 755–770,Short summary
We conducted experiments to investigate the mechanics of sediment attrition due to collisions with the channel bed during downstream transport. During this process, the grains become rounder and smaller, changing the overall distribution of sediment in the river. In this work we examine how material properties play a role in the breakdown of sediment due to energetic collisions and the fine particles that are produced when chipped off of larger grains.
Nate A. Mitchell and Brian J. Yanites
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 723–753,Short summary
A landscape's appearance reflects the properties of the underlying bedrock. For example, strong bedrock can lead to steep slopes. Recent work has shown, however, that in areas with mixed rock types the stronger bedrock can have lower slopes. In this study, we use numerical models of bedrock river erosion to show why this change in behavior occurs. We also present a new approach for estimating bedrock erodibility. This new approach can allow for new opportunities in the field of geomorphology.
Sarah G. W. Williams and David J. Furbish
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 701–721,Short summary
Particle motions and travel distances prior to deposition on hillslope surfaces depend on a balance of gravitational and frictional forces. We elaborate how particle energy is partitioned and dissipated during travel using measurements of particle travel distances supplemented with high-speed imaging of drop–impact–rebound experiments. Results show that particle shape plays a dominant role in how energy is partitioned during impact with a surface and how far particles travel in two dimensions.
Jennifer R. Shadrick, Martin D. Hurst, Matthew D. Piggott, Bethany G. Hebditch, Alexander J. Seal, Klaus M. Wilcken, and Dylan H. Rood
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
Here we use topographic and 10Be concentration data to optimise a coastal evolution model. Cliff retreat rates are calculated for two UK sites for the past 8000 years, and for the first time, highlight a strong link between the rate of sea level rise and long-term cliff retreat rates. This method enables us to study past cliff response to sea level rise, and so, to greatly improve forecasts of future responses to accelerations in sea level rise that will result from climate change.
Øystein T. Haug, Matthias Rosenau, Michael Rudolf, Karen Leever, and Onno Oncken
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 665–672,Short summary
The runout of rock avalanches scales with their volume but also shows a considerable variation for avalanches with similar volumes. Here we show that besides size-dependent weakening mechanisms, fragmentation can account for the observed variability in runout. We use laboratory-scale experimental avalanches to simulate and analyse the role of fragmentation. We find that fragmentation consumes energy but also increases avalanche mobility. It does so systematically and predictably.
Víctor Cartelle, Natasha L. M. Barlow, David M. Hodgson, Freek S. Busschers, Kim M. Cohen, Bart M. L. Meijninger, and Wessel P. van Kesteren
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Reconstructing the growth and decay of past ice sheets is critical to understand the relationships between global climate and sea-level change. We take advantage of large windfarm datasets in the southern North Sea to investigate the buried landscapes left by ice sheet advance and retreat occurring ≈160,000 years ago. We demonstrate the utility of offshore windfarm data in refining palaeo ice sheet margin limits and providing insight into the processes influencing ice sheet dynamics.
David Jon Furbish, Joshua J. Roering, Tyler H. Doane, Danica L. Roth, Sarah G. W. Williams, and Angel M. Abbott
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 539–576,Short summary
Sediment particles skitter down steep hillslopes on Earth and Mars. Particles gain speed in going downhill but are slowed down and sometimes stop due to collisions with the rough surface. The likelihood of stopping depends on the energetics of speeding up (heating) versus slowing down (cooling). Statistical physics predicts that particle travel distances are described by a generalized Pareto distribution whose form varies with the Kirkby number – the ratio of heating to cooling.
David Jon Furbish, Sarah G. W. Williams, Danica L. Roth, Tyler H. Doane, and Joshua J. Roering
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 577–613,Short summary
The generalized Pareto distribution of particle travel distances on steep hillslopes, as described in a companion paper (Furbish et al., 2021a), is entirely consistent with measurements of travel distances obtained from laboratory and field-based experiments, supplemented with high-speed imaging and audio recordings that highlight the effects of bumpety-bump particle motions. Particle size and shape, in concert with surface roughness, strongly influence particle energetics and deposition.
David Jon Furbish, Sarah G. W. Williams, and Tyler H. Doane
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 615–628,Short summary
The generalized Pareto distribution of particle travel distances on steep hillslopes, as described in two companion papers (Furbish et al., 2021a, 2021b), is a maximum entropy distribution. This simply represents the most probable way that a great number of particles become distributed into distance states, subject to a fixed total energetic cost due to frictional effects of particle–surface collisions. The maximum entropy criterion is equivalent to a formal application of Occam's razor.
David Jon Furbish and Tyler H. Doane
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 629–664,Short summary
Using analyses of particle motions on steep hillslopes in three companion papers (Furbish et al., 2021a, 2021b, 2021c), we offer philosophical perspective on the merits of a statistical mechanics framework for describing sediment particle motions and transport, and the implications of rarefied versus continuum transport conditions. We highlight the mechanistic yet probabilistic nature of the approach, and the importance of tailoring the style of thinking to the process and scale of interest.
Saptarshi Dey, Rasmus C. Thiede, Arindam Biswas, Naveen Chauhan, Pritha Chakravarti, and Vikrant Jain
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 463–485,Short summary
Ongoing deformation of the Himalaya is not constrained to its southern extremity. With morphometric analysis using a high-resolution digital elevation model, satellite image analysis, luminescence chronology of fluvial terraces and field observations, we identify a zone of rapid rock uplift in the interior of the Kashmir Himalaya. Our results suggest active tectonic and structural control on the growth of topography in the Himalayan interiors over multi-millennial timescales.
Arthur Depicker, Gerard Govers, Liesbet Jacobs, Benjamin Campforts, Judith Uwihirwe, and Olivier Dewitte
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 445–462,Short summary
We investigated how shallow landslide occurrence is impacted by deforestation and rifting in the North Tanganyika–Kivu rift region (Africa). We developed a new approach to calculate landslide erosion rates based on an inventory compiled in biased © Google Earth imagery. We find that deforestation increases landslide erosion by a factor of 2–8 and for a period of roughly 15 years. However, the exact impact of deforestation depends on the geomorphic context of the landscape (rejuvenated/relict).
Jules Le Guern, Stéphane Rodrigues, Thomas Geay, Sébastien Zanker, Alexandre Hauet, Pablo Tassi, Nicolas Claude, Philippe Jugé, Antoine Duperray, and Louis Vervynck
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 423–444,Short summary
Despite the inherent difficulties in quantifying its value, sediment transport is essential to understanding fluvial systems. This study tries to improve the measurement by comparing several methods. Acoustic methods are compared to direct measurements with samplers. The hydrophone is well adapted to quantify sediment transport in mountain streams, but this study shows the potential and the efficiency of this device in large lowland rivers.
Fumitoshi Imaizumi, Atsushi Ikeda, Kazuki Yamamoto, and Okihiro Osaka
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
The rainfall threshold for the debris flow occurrence was evaluated on Mt. Fuji, Japan. Debris flows during frozen periods were triggered by a smaller magnitude of rainfall than during unfrozen periods. During unfrozen periods, the rainfall threshold was higher when the volume of channel deposits was larger. The results suggest that the occurrence of frozen ground need to be monitored for better debris flow disaster mitigation in cold regions.
Velio Coviello, Lucia Capra, Gianluca Norini, Norma Dávila, Dolors Ferrés, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, and Eduard Pico
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 393–412,Short summary
The Puebla–Morelos earthquake (19 September 2017) was the most damaging event in central Mexico since 1985. The seismic shaking produced hundreds of shallow landslides on the slopes of Popocatépetl Volcano. The larger landslides transformed into large debris flows that travelled for kilometers. We describe this exceptional mass wasting cascade and its predisposing factors, which have important implications for both the evolution of the volcanic edifice and hazard assessment.
Jon D. Pelletier
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 379–391,Short summary
The sizes and shapes of alluvial channels vary in a systematic way with the water flow they convey during large floods. It is demonstrated that the depth of alluvial channels is controlled by the resistance of channel bank material to slumping, which in turn is controlled by clay content. Deeper channels have faster water flow in a manner controlled by the critical hydraulic state to which channels tend to evolve. Channel width and slope can be further quantified using conservation principles.
Marco Piantini, Florent Gimbert, Hervé Bellot, and Alain Recking
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
We carry out laboratory experiments to investigate the formation and propagation dynamics of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain rivers. We show that the ability of a self-formed deposit to destabilize and generate sediment pulses depends on the sand content of the mixture, while each pulse turns out to be formed by a front, a body, and a tail. Seismic measurements reveal a complex and non-unique dependency between seismic power and sediment pulses’ transport characteristics.
Chenge An, Marwan A. Hassan, Carles Ferrer-Boix, and Xudong Fu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 333–350,Short summary
Mountain rivers are characterized by fluctuations of water flow, including both flood and inter-flood low flow. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to how inter-flood low flow affects the sediment transport in subsequent floods. Here we present a series of flume experiments. Results show that the existence of inter-flood low flow can reduce the sediment transport at the beginning of the subsequent flood. However, such an effect is gradually erased with the increase of flow intensity.
Tyler H. Doane, Jon D. Pelletier, and Mary H. Nichols
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 317–331,Short summary
This paper explores how the geometry of rill networks contributes to observed nonlinear relationships between soil loss and hillslope length. This work develops probability functions of geometrical quantities of the networks and then extends the theory to hydraulic variables by relying on well-known relationships. Theory is complemented by numerical modeling on numerical and natural surfaces. Results suggest that the particular arrangement of rill networks contributes to nonlinear relationships.
Benedetta Dini, Georgina L. Bennett, Aldina M. A. Franco, Michael R. Z. Whitworth, Kristen L. Cook, Andreas Senn, and John M. Reynolds
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 295–315,Short summary
We use long-range smart sensors connected to a network based on the Internet of Things to explore the possibility of detecting hazardous boulder movements in real time. Prior to the 2019 monsoon season we inserted the devices in 23 boulders spread over debris flow channels and a landslide in northeastern Nepal. The data obtained in this pilot study show the potential of this technology to be used in remote hazard-prone areas in future early warning systems.
Roberto Fernández and Gary Parker
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 253–269,Short summary
We present a set of observations from laboratory experiments on meltwater meandering rivulets on ice and compare them (qualitatively and quantitatively) to patterns commonly found in meandering channels flowing over different materials. Our channels display great similarities with real rivers in spite of being much smaller. Higher temperature differences between water and ice create deeper and less sinuous channels with bends that preferentially point downstream and are not as rounded.
Daniel J. Ciarletta, Jennifer L. Miselis, Justin L. Shawler, and Christopher J. Hein
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 183–203,Short summary
The world's sandy coastlines are increasingly altered by humans and sea-level rise, yet quantitative relationships between coastal landscapes and sediment availability remain poorly described. Using a novel modeling framework, we explore the evolution of coastal barrier islands under varying rates of sea-level rise and sediment availability. Our model results suggest that as sea levels increase, minor changes in sediment availability could result in rapid changes to barrier coasts.
Alexander R. Groos, Janik Niederhauser, Luise Wraase, Falk Hänsel, Thomas Nauss, Naki Akçar, and Heinz Veit
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 145–166,Short summary
Large sorted stone stripes have been discovered on the 4000 m high central Sanetti Plateau of the tropical Bale Mountains in Ethiopia. The stripes are a mystery as similar landforms have so far only been reported in the temperate zone and polar regions. Our investigations suggest that the stripes formed in the vicinity of a former ice cap on the plateau during a much colder climatic period. The distinct pattern is the result of a process related to cyclic freezing and thawing of the ground.
Daniel Peifer, Cristina Persano, Martin D. Hurst, Paul Bishop, and Derek Fabel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 167–181,Short summary
Plate tectonics drive the formation of mountain ranges. Yet when tectonic forces cease, mountain ranges persist for hundreds of millions of years, forming major Earth surface features. This work presents denudation rate estimates from one such ancient mountain range that show that denudation is strongly tied to rock type. Resistant rocks denude more slowly despite having much steeper topography, and contrasts in rock type cause increasing relief in the absence of active tectonics.
Magdalena Uber, Guillaume Nord, Cédric Legout, and Luis Cea
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 123–144,Short summary
Understanding soil erosion and suspended sediment transport is an important issue in terms of soil and water resources management. This study analyzes the impact of choices made during numerical model setup on the modeled suspended sediment dynamics at the outlet of two mesoscale watersheds. While the modeled liquid and solid discharges were found to be sensitive to these choices, the actual location of sediment sources in each catchment was the most important feature.
Chen Wang, Lennert Schepers, Matthew L. Kirwan, Enrica Belluco, Andrea D'Alpaos, Qiao Wang, Shoujing Yin, and Stijn Temmerman
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 71–88,Short summary
Coastal marshes are valuable natural habitats with normally dense vegetation. The presence of bare patches is a symptom of habitat degradation. We found that the occurrence of bare patches and regrowth of vegetation is related to spatial variations in soil surface elevation and to the distance and connectivity to tidal creeks. These relations are similar in three marshes at very different geographical locations. Our results may help nature managers to conserve and restore coastal marshes.
Kumar Gaurav, François Métivier, A V Sreejith, Rajiv Sinha, Amit Kumar, and Sampat Kumar Tandon
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 47–70,Short summary
This study demonstrates an innovative methodology to estimate the formative discharge of alluvial rivers from remote sensing images. We have developed an automated algorithm in Python 3 to extract the width of a river channel from satellite images. Finally, this channel width is translated into discharge using a semi-empirical regime equation developed from field measurements and threshold channel theory that explains the first-order geometry of alluvial channels.
Georgios Maniatis, Trevor Hoey, Rebecca Hodge, Dieter Rickenmann, and Alexandre Badoux
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1067–1099,Short summary
One of the most interesting problems in geomorphology concerns the conditions that mobilise sediments grains in rivers. Newly developed
smartpebbles allow for the measurement of those conditions directly if a suitable framework for analysis is followed. This paper connects such a framework with the physics used to described sediment motion and presents a series of laboratory and field smart-pebble deployments. Those quantify how grain shape affects the motion of coarse sediments in rivers.
William D. Smith, Stuart A. Dunning, Stephen Brough, Neil Ross, and Jon Telling
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1053–1065,Short summary
Glacial landslides are difficult to detect and likely underestimated due to rapid covering or dispersal. Without improved detection rates we cannot constrain their impact on glacial dynamics or their potential climatically driven increases in occurrence. Here we present a new open-access tool (GERALDINE) that helps a user detect 92 % of these events over the past 38 years on a global scale. We demonstrate its ability by identifying two new, large glacial landslides in the Hayes Range, Alaska.
David L. Adams and Andrea Zampiron
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1039–1051,Short summary
This paper presents a novel method of estimating the relative contribution of different physical scales of river bed topography to the total roughness length, based on thalweg elevation profiles. By providing more detailed information regarding the interaction between surface topography and fluid dynamics, the proposed technique may contribute to advances in hydraulics, channel morphodynamics, and bedload transport. Also, it may provide alternatives to existing representative roughness metrics.
Kristian Svennevig, Trine Dahl-Jensen, Marie Keiding, John Peter Merryman Boncori, Tine B. Larsen, Sara Salehi, Anne Munck Solgaard, and Peter H. Voss
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1021–1038,Short summary
The 17 June 2017 Karrat landslide in Greenland caused a tsunami that killed four people. We apply a multidisciplinary workflow to reconstruct a timeline of events and find that three historic landslides occurred in 2009, 2016, and 2017. We also find evidence of much older periods of landslide activity. Three newly discovered active slopes might pose a future hazard. We speculate that the trigger for the recent events is melting permafrost due to a warming climate.
Steven A. H. Weisscher, Marcio Boechat-Albernaz, Jasper R. F. W. Leuven, Wout M. Van Dijk, Yasuyuki Shimizu, and Maarten G. Kleinhans
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 955–972,Short summary
Accurate and continuous data collection is challenging in physical scale experiments. A novel means to augment measurements is to numerically model flow over the experimental digital elevation maps. We tested this modelling approach for one tidal and two river scale experiments and showed that modelled water depth and flow velocity closely resemble the measurements. The implication is that conducting experiments requires fewer measurements and results in flow data of better overall quality.
Carina Helm, Marwan A. Hassan, and David Reid
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 913–929,Short summary
Forested, gravel-bed streams possess complex channel morphologies which are difficult to objectively characterize. This paper describes a novel technique using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) to characterize these systems below the forest canopy. The results demonstrate the accuracy and coverage of RPAs for objectively characterizing and classifying these systems relative to more traditional, time-consuming techniques that are generally used in these environments.
Nathan J. Lyons, Pedro Val, James S. Albert, Jane K. Willenbring, and Nicole M. Gasparini
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 893–912,Short summary
Organisms evolve in ever-changing environments under complex process interactions. We applied a new software modelling tool to assess how changes in river course impact the evolution of riverine species. Models illustrate the climatically and tectonically forced landscape changes that can drive riverine biodiversity, especially where topographic relief is low. This research demonstrates that river course changes can contribute to the high riverine biodiversity found in real-world lowland basins.
Andy R. Emery, David M. Hodgson, Natasha L. M. Barlow, Jonathan L. Carrivick, Carol J. Cotterill, Janet C. Richardson, Ruza F. Ivanovic, and Claire L. Mellett
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 869–891,Short summary
During the last ice age, sea level was lower, and the North Sea was land. The margin of a large ice sheet was at Dogger Bank in the North Sea. This ice sheet formed large rivers. After the ice sheet retreated down from the high point of Dogger Bank, the rivers had no water supply and dried out. Increased precipitation during the 15 000 years of land exposure at Dogger Bank formed a new drainage network. This study shows how glaciation and climate changes can control how drainage networks evolve.
Matteo Saletti and Marwan A. Hassan
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 855–868,Short summary
Mountain streams often display a stepped morphology but the conditions under which these steps form, remain stable, and eventually collapse are still not entirely clear. We run flume experiments to study how (a) the amount of sediment input and (b) channel width variations affect step dynamics in steep channels. Steps form preferentially in areas of flow convergence (channel narrowing) and their frequency is higher when sediment supply is larger than zero but smaller than the transport capacity.
Brasington, J., Rumsby, B. T., and McVey, R. A.: Monitoring and modelling morphological change in a braided gravel-bed river using high resolution GPS-based survey, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 25, 973–990, https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200008)25:9<973::AID-ESP111>3.0.CO;2-Y, 2000.
Brasington, J., Langham, J., and Rumsby, B.: Methodological sensitivity of morphometric estimates of coarse fluvial sediment transport, Geomorphology, 53, 299–316, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(02)00320-3, 2003.
Clapuyt, F., Vanacker, V., and Van Oost, K.: Reproducibility of UAV-based earth topography reconstructions based on Structure-from-Motion algorithms, Geomorphology, 260, 4–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.05.011, 2016.
Clapuyt, F., Vanacker, V., Schlunegger, F., and Van Oost, K.: Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models, Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 791–806, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-5-791-2017, 2017.
d'Oleire-Oltmanns, S., Marzolff, I., Peter, K., and Ries, J.: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for monitoring soil erosion in Morocco, Remote Sens., 4, 3390–3416, 2012.
Duró, G., Crosato, A., Kleinhans, M. G., and Uijttewaal, W. S. J.: Bank erosion processes measured with UAV-SfM along complex banklines of a straight mid-sized river reach, Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 933–953, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-6-933-2018, 2018.
Eker, R., Aydın, A., and Hübl, J.: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based monitoring of a landslide: Gallenzerkogel landslide (Ybbs-Lower Austria) case study, Environ. Monit. Assess., 190, 28, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6402-8, 2018.
Eltner, A. and Schneider, D.: Analysis of Different Methods for 3-D Reconstruction of Natural Surfaces from Parallel-Axes UAV Images, Photogramm. Rec., 30, 279–299, https://doi.org/10.1111/phor.12115, 2015.
Eltner, A., Baumgart, P., Maas, H., and Faust, D.: Multi-temporal UAV data for automatic measurement of rill and interrill erosion on loess soil, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 40, 741–755, 2015.
Eltner, A., Kaiser, A., Castillo, C., Rock, G., Neugirg, F., and Abellán, A.: Image-based surface reconstruction in geomorphometry – merits, limits and developments, Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 359–389, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-4-359-2016, 2016.
Eltner, A., Kaiser, A., Abellan, A., and Schindewolf, M.: Time lapse structure-from-motion photogrammetry for continuous geomorphic monitoring, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 42, 2240–2253, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4178, 2017.
Fazeli, H., Samadzadegan, F., and Dadrasjavan, F.: Evaluating the potential of RTK-UAV for automatic point cloud generation in 3-D rapid mapping, Int. Arch. Photogramm., 41, 221–226, https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B6-221-2016, 2016.
Forlani, G., Dall'Asta, E., Diotri, F., di Cella, U. M., Roncella, R., and Santise, M.: Quality assessment of DSMs produced from UAV flights georeferenced with on-board RTK positioning, Remote Sens., 10, 1–22, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020311, 2018.
Fuller, I. C., Large, A. R. G., Charlton, M. E., Heritage, G. L., and Milan, D. J.: Reach-scale sediment transfers: An evaluation of two morphological budgeting approaches, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 28, 889–903, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1011, 2003.
Gerke, M. and Przybilla, H.-J.: Accuracy Analysis of Photogrammetric UAV Image Blocks: Influence of Onboard RTK-GNSS and Cross Flight Patterns, Photogramm. Fernerkun., 2016, 17–30, https://doi.org/10.1127/pfg/2016/0284, 2016.
Glendell, M., McShane, G., Farrow, L., James, M. R., Quinton, J., Anderson, K., Evans, M., Benaud, P., Rawlins, B., Morgan, D., Jones, L., Kirkham, M., DeBell, L., Quine, T. A., Lark, M., Rickson, J., and Brazier, R. E.: Testing the utility of structure-from-motion photogrammetry reconstructions using small unmanned aerial vehicles and ground photography to estimate the extent of upland soil erosion, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 42, 1860–1871, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4142, 2017.
Grayson, B., Penna, N. T., Mills, J. P., and Grant, D. S.: GPS precise point positioning for UAV photogrammetry, Photogramm. Rec., 33, 427–447, 2018.
Harwin, S. and Lucieer, A.: Assessing the accuracy of georeferenced point clouds produced via multi-view stereopsis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery, Remote Sens., 4, 1573–1599, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs4061573, 2012.
Hawkins, B. S.: Using a drone and photogrammetry software to create orthomosaic images and 3-D models of aircraft accident sites, in: ISASI 2016 Seminar, 17–20 October 2016, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1–26, 2016.
Hemmelder, S., Marra, W., Markies, H., and De Jong, S. M.: Monitoring river morphology & bank erosion using UAV imagery – A case study of the river Buëch, Hautes-Alpes, France, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 73, 428–437, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2018.07.016, 2018.
James, M. R. and Robson, S.: Straightforward reconstruction of 3-D surfaces and topography with a camera: Accuracy and geoscience application, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 117, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF002289, 2012.
James, M. R. and Robson, S.: Mitigating systematic error in topographic models derived from UAV and ground-based image networks, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 39, 1413–1420, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3609, 2014.
James, M. R., Robson, S., and Smith, M. W.: 3-D uncertainty-based topographic change detection with structure-from-motion photogrammetry: precision maps for ground control and directly georeferenced surveys, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 42, 1769–1788, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4125, 2017.
Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A., Shea, J. M., Pellicciotti, F., De Jong, S. M., and Immerzeel, W. W.: Object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle imagery to map and characterise surface features on a debris-covered glacier, Remote Sens. Environ., 186, 581–595, 2016.
Lane, S. N., James, T. D., and Crowell, M. D.: Application of digital photogrammetry to complex topography for geomorphological research, Photogramm. Rec., 16, 793–821, https://doi.org/10.1111/0031-868X.00152, 2000.
Messinger, M., Asner, G. P., and Silman, M.: Rapid assessments of amazon forest structure and biomass using small unmanned aerial systems, Remote Sens., 8, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8080615, 2016.
Micheletti, N., Chandler, J. H., and Lane, S. N.: Investigating the geomorphological potential of freely available and accessible structure-from-motion photogrammetry using a smartphone, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 40, 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3648, 2015.
Mosbrucker, A. R., Major, J. J., Spicer, K. R., and Pitlick, J.: Camera system considerations for geomorphic applications of SfM photogrammetry, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 42, 969–986, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4066, 2017.
Ouédraogo, M. M., Degré, A., Debouche, C., and Lisein, J.: The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds, Geomorphology, 214, 339–355, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.02.016, 2014.
Padró, J.-C., Muñoz, F.-J., Planas, J., and Pons, X.: Comparison of four UAV georeferencing methods for environmental monitoring purposes focusing on the combined use with airborne and satellite remote sensing platforms, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 75, 130–140, 2019.
Passalacqua, P., Belmont, P., Staley, D. M., Simley, J. D., Arrowsmith, J. R., Bode, C. A., Crosby, C., DeLong, S. B., Glenn, N. F., Kelly, S. A., Lague, D., Sangireddy, H., Schaffrath, K., Tarboton, D. G., Wasklewicz, T., and Wheaton, J. M.: Analyzing high resolution topography for advancing the understanding of mass and energy transfer through landscapes: A review, Earth-Sci. Rev., 148, 174–193, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.05.012, 2015.
Pineux, N., Lisein, J., Swerts, G., Bielders, C. L., Lejeune, P., Colinet, G., and Degré, A.: Can DEM time series produced by UAV be used to quantify diffuse erosion in an agricultural watershed?, Geomorphology, 280, 122–136, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.12.003, 2017.
Rosnell, T. and Honkavaara, E.: Point cloud generation from aerial image data acquired by a quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle and a digital still camera, Sensors, 12, 453–480, https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100453, 2012.
Rossini, M., Di Mauro, B., Garzonio, R., Baccolo, G., Cavallini, G., Mattavelli, M., De Amicis, M., and Colombo, R.: Rapid melting dynamics of an alpine glacier with repeated UAV photogrammetry, Geomorphology, 304, 159–172, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.12.039, 2018.
Sanz-Ablanedo, E., Chandler, J. H., and Wackrow, R.: Parameterising Internal Camera Geometry with Focusing Distance, Photogramm. Rec., 27, 210–226, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9730.2012.00677.x, 2012.
Sanz-Ablanedo, E., Chandler, J., Rodríguez-Pérez, J., Ordóñez, C., Sanz-Ablanedo, E., Chandler, J. H., Rodríguez-Pérez, J. R., and Ordóñez, C.: Accuracy of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and SfM Photogrammetry Survey as a Function of the Number and Location of Ground Control Points Used, Remote Sens., 10, 1606, https://doi.org/10.3390/RS10101606, 2018.
Smith, M. W., Carrivick, J. L., and Quincey, D. J.: Structure from motion photogrammetry in physical geography, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 40, 247–275, 2016.
Stöcker, C., Nex, F., Koeva, M., and Gerke, M.: Quality assessment of combined IMU/GNSS data for direct georeferencing in the context of UAV-based mapping, Int. Arch. Photogramm., 42, 355–361, https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W6-355-2017, 2017.
Takasu, T. and Yasuda, A.: Development of the low-cost RTK-GPS receiver with an open source program package RTKLIB, in: International Symposium on GPS/GNSS, 4–6 November 2009, Jeju, Korea, 2009.
Tarolli, P.: High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: Opportunities and challenges, Geomorphology, 216, 295–312, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.03.008, 2014.
Triggs, B., McLauchlan, P. F., Hartley, R. I., and Fitzgibbon, A. W.: Bundle Adjustment – A Modern Synthesis, in Vision Algorithms: Theory and Practice, edited by: Triggs, B., Zisserman, A., and Szeliski, R., 298–372, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2000.
Turner, D., Lucieer, A., and Watson, C.: An automated technique for generating georectified mosaics from ultra-high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, based on structure from motion (SfM) point clouds, Remote Sens., 4, 1392–1410, 2012a.
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We evaluated the performance of a drone system to reconstruct 3-D topography. We used a direct georeferencing method to make the pictures have precise coordinates, which also improves the survey efficiency. With both consumer-grade and professional-grade camera and drone setups, we obtained centimetric accuracy, which provides a flexible application in topography remote sensing using drones.
We evaluated the performance of a drone system to reconstruct 3-D topography. We used a direct...