Articles | Volume 9, issue 5
13 Sep 2021
Research article | 13 Sep 2021
The relative influence of dune aspect ratio and beach width on dune erosion as a function of storm duration and surge level
Michael Itzkin et al.
No articles found.
Chuan Li, H. Tuba Özkan-Haller, Gabriel García-Medina, Robert A. Holman, Peter Ruggiero, Treena M. Jensen, David B. Elson, and William R. Schneider
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
In this work, we examine a set of observed extreme, non-earthquake/landslide related wave runup events. Runup events with similar characteristics have previously been attributed to trapped waves over shallow bathymetry and long waves created by atmospheric disturbances. However, we find that neither mechanisms were likely at work in the observations we examined. We show that instead, these runup events were more likely due to energetic growth of bound infragravity waves.
Related subject area
Physical: Geomorphology (including all aspects of fluvial, coastal, aeolian, hillslope and glacial geomorphology)Geophysical evidence of massive hyperconcentrated push waves with embedded toma hills caused by the Flims rockslide, SwitzerlandComparison of calibration characteristics of different acoustic impact systems for measuring bedload transport in mountain streamsEpisodic sediment supply to alluvial fans: implications for fan incision and morphometryFailure mode of rainfall-induced landslide of granite residual soil, southeastern Guangxi Province, ChinaExploring exogenous controls on short- versus long-term erosion rates globallyThe effects of late Cenozoic climate change on the global distribution of frost crackingTransitional rock glaciers at sea level in northern NorwayGrain size of fluvial gravel bars from close-range UAV imagery – uncertainty in segmentation-based dataToward a general calibration of the Swiss plate geophone system for fractional bedload transportQuantification of post-glacier bedrock surface erosion in the European Alps using 10Be and optically stimulated luminescence exposure datingA comparison of 1D and 2D bedload transport functions under high excess shear stress conditions in laterally constrained gravel-bed rivers: a laboratory studyShort communication: Forward and inverse analytic models relating river long profile to tectonic uplift history, assuming a nonlinear slope–erosion dependencyProbabilistic description of bedload fluxes from the aggregate dynamics of individual grainsEffect of debris-flow sediment grain-size distribution on fan morphologyControls on earthflow formation in the Teanaway River basin, central Washington State, USALinking levee-building processes with channel avulsion: geomorphic analysis for assessing avulsion frequency and channel reoccupationThe imprint of erosion by glacial lake outburst floods in the topography of central Himalayan riversVolume, evolution, and sedimentation of future glacier lakes in Switzerland over the 21st centuryResponse of modern fluvial sediments to regional tectonic activity along the Min River, Eastern TibetTheoretical and numerical considerations of rivers in a tectonically inactive forelandSuspended sediment and discharge dynamics in a glaciated alpine environment: identifying crucial areas and time periods on several spatial and temporal scales in the Ötztal, AustriaA multi-proxy assessment of terrace formation in the lower Trinity River valley, TexasAlpine rock glacier activity over Holocene to modern timescales (western French Alps)Spatio-temporal variability and controlling factors for postglacial denudation rates in the Dora Baltea catchment (western Italian Alps)Continuous measurements of valley floor width in mountainous landscapesOrganic carbon burial by river meandering partially offsets bank erosion carbon fluxes in a discontinuous permafrost floodplainEstuarine morphodynamics and development modified by floodplain formationConvolutional neural networks for image-based sediment detection applied to a large terrestrial and airborne datasetA geomorphic-process-based cellular automata model of colluvial wedge morphology and stratigraphySignal response of the Swiss plate geophone monitoring system impacted by bedload particles with different transport modesCombining seismic signal dynamic inversion and numerical modeling improves landslide process reconstructionMorphodynamic styles: characterising the behaviour of gravel-bed rivers using a novel, quantitative indexHybrid modeling on 3D hydraulic features of a step-pool unitRapid Holocene bedrock canyon incision of Beida River, North Qilian Shan, ChinaThe landslide velocityAn analytical model for beach erosion downdrift of groins: case study of Jeongdongjin Beach, KoreaPermafrost in monitored unstable rock slopes in Norway – new insights from temperature and surface velocity measurements, geophysical surveying, and ground temperature modellingThe role of geological mouth islands on the morphodynamics of back-barrier tidal basinsFrom apex to shoreline: fluvio-deltaic architecture for the Holocene Rhine–Meuse delta, the NetherlandsIntensified paraglacial slope failures due to accelerating downwasting of a temperate glacier in Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan PlateauBreaking down chipping and fragmentation in sediment transport: the control of material strengthMulti-objective optimisation of a rock coast evolution model with cosmogenic 10Be analysis for the quantification of long-term cliff retreat ratesTriggering and propagation of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain channels: insights from flume experiments with seismic monitoringTemporal changes in the debris flow threshold under the effects of ground freezing and sediment storage on Mt. FujiSedimentary architecture and landforms of the late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin offshore of the NetherlandsRelationship between meteoric 10Be and NO3− concentrations in soils along Shackleton Glacier, AntarcticaSediment shell-content diminishes current-driven sand ripple development and migrationSand mining far outpaces natural supply in a large alluvial riverThe formation and geometry characteristics of boulder bars due to outburst floods triggered by overtopped landslide dam failureLandslide-lake outburst floods accelerate downstream hillslope slippage
Sibylle Knapp, Michael Schwenk, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1185–1193,Short summary
The Flims area in the Swiss Alps has fascinated the researchers with its complex geological history ever since. Especially the order of events related to the Tamins and Flims rockslides has long been debated. This paper presents novel results based on up to 160 m deep geophysical profiles, which show onlaps of the Bonaduz Formation onto the Tamins deposits (Ils Aults) and thus indicate that the Tamins rockslide occurred first. The consecutive evolution of this landscape is shown in four phases.
Dieter Rickenmann, Lorenz Ammann, Tobias Nicollier, Stefan Boss, Bruno Fritschi, Gilles Antoniazza, Nicolas Steeb, Zheng Chen, Carlos Wyss, and Alexandre Badoux
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1165–1183,Short summary
The Swiss plate geophone system has been installed and tested in more than 20 steep gravel-bed streams. It is an indirect bedload transport measuring system. We compare the performance of this system with three alternative surrogate measuring systems, using calibration measurements with direct bedload samples from three field sites and an outdoor flume facility. Three of the four systems resulted in robust calibration relations between signal impulse counts and transported bedload mass.
Anya S. Leenman and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1097–1114,Short summary
The supply of sediment (sand and gravel) carried by a stream out of a steep mountain valley is widely thought to control the gradient of the fan-shaped landforms that streams often build where they leave their valley. We tested this idea in a set of
sandboxexperiments with oscillating high and low sediment supply. Even though the average sediment supply never changed, longer oscillations built flatter fans, indicating how wetter climates might affect these mountain landforms.
Shanbai Wu, Ruihua Zhao, Liping Liao, Yunchuan Yang, Yao Wei, and Wenzhi Wei
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1079–1096,Short summary
Granite residual soil landslides are widely distributed in southeastern Guangxi Province, China. To understand the failure mode, the landslide can provide a scientific basis for early warning and prevention. In this study, we conducted artificial flume model tests to investigate the failure mode of granite residual soil landslide. The research provides valuable references for the prevention and early warning of granite residual soil landslide in the southeast of Guangxi.
Shiuan-An Chen, Katerina Michaelides, David A. Richards, and Michael Bliss Singer
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1055–1078,Short summary
Drainage basin erosion rates influence landscape evolution through controlling land surface lowering and sediment flux, but gaps remain in understanding their large-scale patterns and drivers between timescales. We analysed global erosion rates and show that long-term erosion rates are controlled by rainfall, former glacial processes, and basin landform, whilst human activities enhance short-term erosion rates. The results highlight the complex interplay of controls on land surface processes.
Hemanti Sharma, Sebastian G. Mutz, and Todd A. Ehlers
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 997–1015,Short summary
We estimate global changes in frost cracking intensity (FCI) using process-based models for four time slices in the late Cenozoic ranging from the Pliocene (∼ 3 Ma) to pre-industrial (∼ 1850 CE, PI). For all time slices, results indicate that FCI was most prevalent in middle to high latitudes and high-elevation lower-latitude areas such as Tibet. Larger deviations (relative to PI) were observed in colder (LGM) and warmer climates (Pliocene) due to differences in temperature and glaciation.
Karianne S. Lilleøren, Bernd Etzelmüller, Line Rouyet, Trond Eiken, Gaute Slinde, and Christin Hilbich
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 975–996,Short summary
In northern Norway we have observed several rock glaciers at sea level. Rock glaciers are landforms that only form under the influence of permafrost, which is frozen ground. Our investigations show that the rock glaciers are probably not active under the current climate but most likely were active in the recent past. This shows how the Arctic now changes due to climate changes and also how similar areas in currently colder climates will change in the future.
David Mair, Ariel Henrique Do Prado, Philippos Garefalakis, Alessandro Lechmann, Alexander Whittaker, and Fritz Schlunegger
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 953–973,Short summary
Grain size data are important for studying and managing rivers, but they are difficult to obtain in the field. Therefore, methods have been developed that use images from small and remotely piloted aircraft. However, uncertainty in grain size data from such image-based products is understudied. Here we present a new way of uncertainty estimation that includes fully modeled errors. We use this technique to assess the effect of several image acquisition aspects on grain size uncertainty.
Tobias Nicollier, Gilles Antoniazza, Lorenz Ammann, Dieter Rickenmann, and James W. Kirchner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 929–951,Short summary
Monitoring sediment transport is relevant for flood safety and river restoration. However, the spatial and temporal variability of sediment transport processes makes their prediction challenging. We investigate the feasibility of a general calibration relationship between sediment transport rates and the impact signals recorded by metal plates installed in the channel bed. We present a new calibration method based on flume experiments and apply it to an extensive dataset of field measurements.
Joanne Elkadi, Benjamin Lehmann, Georgina E. King, Olivia Steinemann, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Marcus Christl, and Frédéric Herman
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 909–928,Short summary
Glacial and non-glacial processes have left a strong imprint on the landscape of the European Alps, but further research is needed to better understand their long-term effects. We apply a new technique combining two methods for bedrock surface dating to calculate post-glacier erosion rates next to a Swiss glacier. Interestingly, the results suggest non-glacial erosion rates are higher than previously thought, but glacial erosion remains the most influential on landscape evolution.
David L. Adams and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 895–907,Short summary
Channel processes under flood conditions are important for river science and management as they involve high volumes of sediment transport and erosion. However, these processes remain poorly understood as the data are difficult to collect. Using a physical model of a river, we found that simple equations based on the mean shear stress and median grain size predicted sediment transport as accurately as ones that accounted for the full range of shear stresses.
Yizhou Wang, Liran Goren, Dewen Zheng, and Huiping Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 833–849,Short summary
Abrupt changes in tectonic uplift rates induce sharp changes in river profile, called knickpoints. When river erosion depends non-linearly on slope, we develop an analytic model for knickpoint velocity and find the condition of knickpoint merging. Then we develop analytic models that represent the two-directional link between tectonic changes and river profile evolution. The derivation provides new understanding on the links between tectonic changes and river profile evolution.
J. Kevin Pierce, Marwan A. Hassan, and Rui M. L. Ferreira
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 817–832,Short summary
We describe the flow of sediment in river channels by replacing the complicated details of the turbulent water with probability arguments. Our major conclusions are that (1) sediment transport can be phrased in terms of the movements of individual sediment grains, (2) transport rates in river channels are inherently uncertain, and (3) sediment transport in rivers is directly analogous to a number of phenomena which we understand relatively well, such as molecules moving in air.
Haruka Tsunetaka, Norifumi Hotta, Yuichi Sakai, and Thad Wasklewicz
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 775–796,Short summary
To assess the effects of differences in grain-size distribution within debris flows on the morphology of debris-flow fans, fan morphologies were modeled experimentally. Even if debris flows exhibited similar flow properties, their runout distance differed in response to differences in their grain-size distribution. Differences in runout distance were responsible for variations in the direction of the descending flow that resulted in different debris-flow fan morphology.
Sarah A. Schanz and A. Peyton Colee
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 761–774,Short summary
We mapped and dated 187 earthflows to determine controls on earthflow formation and resulting topographic changes in the Teanaway basin, central Washington State, USA. Using a new relative dating technique and absolute dating, we find that 25 % of earthflows were active in the last ~500 years. Earthflows are lithologically controlled, actively narrow valleys, and increase sediment loads.
Jeongyeon Han and Wonsuck Kim
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 743–759,Short summary
A levee-building model is presented to investigate the effects of flood on levee slope and river behaviors. Coarser grains that cause steep levee slopes lead to frequent switchings of river paths, but higher overflow velocity has an opposite effect. High levee slopes lead to more reoccupations of abandoned old river paths than low levee slopes when rivers switch their locations. The study helps us to assess flood hazards with river-path switching.
Maxwell P. Dahlquist and A. Joshua West
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 705–722,Short summary
Himalayan rivers are full of giant boulders that rarely move except during glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), which therefore must be important drivers of erosion in the Himalayas. GLOFs are rare, so little is known about their long-term erosional impact. We found that rivers in Nepal have channel geometry that, compared with markers of upstream glaciation, confirm GLOFs as a major control on erosion. This previously unrecognized control should be accounted for in landscape evolution studies.
Tim Steffen, Matthias Huss, Rebekka Estermann, Elias Hodel, and Daniel Farinotti
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 723–741,Short summary
Climate change is rapidly altering high-alpine landscapes. The formation of new lakes in areas becoming ice free due to glacier retreat is one of the many consequences of this process. Here, we provide an estimate for the number, size, time of emergence, and sediment infill of future glacier lakes that will emerge in the Swiss Alps. We estimate that up to ~ 680 potential lakes could form over the course of the 21st century, with the potential to hold a total water volume of up to ~ 1.16 km3.
Wei Shi, Hanchao Jiang, Hongyan Xu, Siyuan Ma, Jiawei Fan, Siqi Zhang, Qiaoqiao Guo, and Xiaotong Wei
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
The alpine valleys reduce the preservation potential of Quaternary sediment in bedrock valley region, which seriously hinder the study of modern tectonic activity. We report a new method to reveal regional tectonic activity by analyzing fluvial sediments in tectonically active regions. Our analyses identify three segments of different tectonic activities along the upper Min River, eastern Tibet. This method provides a key framework to reveal tectonic activity in other regions of the world.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 671–686,Short summary
Many studies on modeling landform evolution have focused on mountain ranges, while large parts of Earth's surface are quite flat and alluvial plains have been preferred locations for human settlements. Conducting large-scale simulations of fluvial erosion and sediment transport, this study reveals that rivers in a tectonically inactive foreland are much more dynamic than rivers in a mountain range; the local redistribution of deposits in the foreland is the main driver of the dynamics.
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Erwin Rottler, Theresa Blume, Johannes Schöber, and Axel Bronstert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 653–669,Short summary
Climate change fundamentally alters glaciated high-alpine areas, but it is unclear how this affects riverine sediment transport. As a first step, we aimed to identify the most important processes and source areas in three nested catchments in the Ötztal, Austria, in the past 15 years. We found that areas above 2500 m were crucial and that summer rainstorms were less influential than glacier melt. These findings provide a baseline for studies on future changes in high-alpine sediment dynamics.
Hima J. Hassenruck-Gudipati, Thaddeus Ellis, Timothy A. Goudge, and David Mohrig
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 635–651,Short summary
During the late Pleistocene, the incision of the Trinity River valley left behind terraces. Elevation data and measurements of abandoned channels preserved on terraces are used to evaluate how terraces formed. We find a transition in the style of terraces with age from those associated with external environmental forcings to those produced by internal river migration changes. This result shows the importance of several indicators (i.e., channel bends, elevations) in determining terrace form.
Benjamin Lehmann, Robert S. Anderson, Xavier Bodin, Diego Cusicanqui, Pierre G. Valla, and Julien Carcaillet
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 605–633,Short summary
Rock glaciers are some of the most frequently occurring landforms containing ice in mountain environments. Here, we use field observations, analysis of aerial and satellite images, and dating methods to investigate the activity of the rock glacier of the Vallon de la Route in the French Alps. Our results suggest that the rock glacier is characterized by two major episodes of activity and that the rock glacier system promotes the maintenance of mountain erosion.
Elena Serra, Pierre G. Valla, Romain Delunel, Natacha Gribenski, Marcus Christl, and Naki Akçar
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 493–512,Short summary
Alpine landscapes are transformed by several erosion processes. 10Be concentrations measured in river sediments at the outlet of a basin represent a powerful tool to quantify how fast the catchment erodes. We measured erosion rates within the Dora Baltea catchments (western Italian Alps). Our results show that erosion is governed by topography, bedrock resistance and glacial imprint. The Mont Blanc massif has the highest erosion and therefore dominates the sediment flux of the Dora Baltea river.
Fiona J. Clubb, Eliot F. Weir, and Simon M. Mudd
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 437–456,Short summary
River valleys are important components of mountain systems: they are the most fertile part of landscapes and store sediment which is transported from mountains to surrounding basins. Our knowledge of the location and shape of valleys is hindered by our ability to measure them over large areas. We present a new method for measuring the width of mountain valleys continuously along river channels from digital topography and show that our method can be used to test common models of river widening.
Madison M. Douglas, Gen K. Li, Woodward W. Fischer, Joel C. Rowland, Preston C. Kemeny, A. Joshua West, Jon Schwenk, Anastasia P. Piliouras, Austin J. Chadwick, and Michael P. Lamb
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 421–435,Short summary
Arctic rivers erode into permafrost and mobilize organic carbon, which can react to form greenhouse gasses or be re-buried in floodplain deposits. We collected samples on a permafrost floodplain in Alaska to determine if more carbon is eroded or deposited by river meandering. The floodplain contained a mixture of young carbon fixed by the biosphere and old, re-deposited carbon. Thus, sediment storage may allow Arctic river floodplains to retain aged organic carbon even when permafrost thaws.
Maarten G. Kleinhans, Lonneke Roelofs, Steven A. H. Weisscher, Ivar R. Lokhorst, and Lisanne Braat
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 367–381,Short summary
Floodplain formation in estuaries limit the ebb and flood flow, reducing channel migration and shortening the tidally influenced reach. Vegetation establishment on bars reduces local flow velocity and concentrates flow into channels, while mudflats fill accommodation space and reduce channel migration. These results are based on experimental estuaries in the Metronome facility supported by numerical flow modelling.
Xingyu Chen, Marwan A. Hassan, and Xudong Fu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 349–366,Short summary
We compiled a large image dataset containing more than 125 000 sediments and developed a model (GrainID) based on convolutional neural networks to measure individual grain size from images. The model was calibrated on flume and natural stream images covering a wide range of fluvial environments. The model showed high performance compared with other methods. Our model showed great potential for grain size measurements from a small patch of sediment in a flume to a watershed-scale drone survey.
Harrison J. Gray, Christopher B. DuRoss, Sylvia R. Nicovich, and Ryan D. Gold
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 329–348,Short summary
Some types of big earthquakes create small cliffs or
fault scarps∼1–3 m in height, where sediments can pile up and create deposits we call
colluvial wedges. Geologists will look at colluvial wedges and use them to understand how often big earthquakes occur. Here we made a computer simulation to find out if the way we think colluvial wedges form works with physics. We found that it does in theory, but there are conditions in which it may be more complicated than we expected.
Zheng Chen, Siming He, Tobias Nicollier, Lorenz Ammann, Alexandre Badoux, and Dieter Rickenmann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 279–300,Short summary
Bedload flux quantification remains challenging in river dynamics due to variable transport modes. We used a passive monitoring device to record the acoustic signals generated by the impacts of bedload particles with different transport modes, and established the relationship between the triggered signals and bedload characteristics. The findings of this study could improve our understanding of the monitoring system and bedload transport process, and contribute to bedload size classification.
Yan Yan, Yifei Cui, Xinghui Huang, Wengang Zhang, Shuyao Yin, Jiaojiao Zhou, and Sheng Hu
Landslides present a significant hazard for humans, but continuous landslide monitoring is not yet possible due to their unpredictability. Our study has demonstrated that combing landslide seismic signal analysis, dynamic inversion, and numerical simulation provides a comprehensive and accurate method for studying the landslide process. The approach outlined in this study could be used to support hazard prevention and control in sensitive areas.
William H. Booker and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 247–260,Short summary
Channel behaviour is a qualitative aspect of river research that needs development to produce a framework of analysis between and within types of channels. We seek to produce a quantitative metric that can capture how a channel changes using a pair of experiments and collecting easy to obtain data. We demonstrate that this new technique is capable of discerning between river types and may provide a new tool with which we may describe channel behaviour.
Chendi Zhang, Yuncheng Xu, Marwan A. Hassan, Mengzhen Xu, and Pukang He
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Step-pool morphology is commonly formed in mountain streams. The geomorphic processes of step-pool features are closely interacted with hydraulic properties, which have limited access due to measurement difficulties. We established a hybrid model approach combining physical flume experiments and numerical simulations to acquire detailed three-dimensional hydraulics for step-pool morphology, which provides new understanding on the links between hydraulics and morphology for a step-pool feature.
Yiran Wang, Michael E. Oskin, Youli Li, and Huiping Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 191–208,Short summary
Beida River has an over-steepened reach presently located 10 km upstream of the North Qilian mountain front. It was formed because river incising into the bedrocks inside the mountain cannot keep up with river incising into the soft sediment in the basin. We suggest this over-steepened reach represents a fast incision period 3–4 kyr ago, deepening the canyon for ~35 m within ~700 years. The formation of this reach corresponds to a humid period related to strong Southeast Asian Monsoon influence.
Shiva P. Pudasaini and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 165–189,Short summary
We present the first physics-based general landslide velocity model incorporating internal deformation and external forces. Voellmy–inviscid Burgers' equations are specifications of the novel advective–dissipative system. Unified analytical solutions constitute a new foundation of landslide velocity, providing key information to instantly estimate impact forces and describe breaking waves and folding, revealing that landslide dynamics are architectured by advection and reigned by forcing.
Changbin Lim, Soonmi Hwang, and Jung Lyul Lee
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 151–163,Short summary
Recently, along the east coast of South Korea, seasonal beach erosion has been induced by structures which severely block the supply of sand from the upstream side. This study proposes a coastal solution that can predict the maximum indentation point in downdrift erosion formed downstream of groins by applying a parabolic bay shape equation (PBSE).
Bernd Etzelmüller, Justyna Czekirda, Florence Magnin, Pierre-Allain Duvillard, Ludovic Ravanel, Emanuelle Malet, Andreas Aspaas, Lene Kristensen, Ingrid Skrede, Gudrun D. Majala, Benjamin Jacobs, Johannes Leinauer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Martina Böhme, Reginald Hermanns, Harald Ø. Eriksen, Tom Rune Lauknes, Michael Krautblatter, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 97–129,Short summary
This paper is a multi-authored study documenting the possible existence of permafrost in permanently monitored rockslides in Norway for the first time by combining a multitude of field data, including geophysical surveys in rock walls. The paper discusses the possible role of thermal regime and rockslide movement, and it evaluates the possible impact of atmospheric warming on rockslide dynamics in Norwegian mountains.
Yizhang Wei, Yining Chen, Jufei Qiu, Zeng Zhou, Peng Yao, Qin Jiang, Zheng Gong, Giovanni Coco, Ian Townend, and Changkuan Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 65–80,Short summary
The barrier tidal basin is increasingly altered by human activity and sea-level rise. These environmental changes probably lead to the emergence or disappearance of islands, yet the effect of rocky islands on the evolution of tidal basins remains poorly investigated. Using numerical experiments, we explore the evolution of tidal basins under varying numbers and locations of islands. This work provides insights for predicting the response of barrier tidal basins in a changing environment.
Marc J. P. Gouw and Marc P. Hijma
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 43–64,Short summary
If you were to navigate an entire delta by boat, you would clearly see that the general characteristics of the channels change throughout the delta. The drivers behind these changes have been studied extensively. Field studies encompassing the entire delta are rare but give important insights into these drivers that can help other researchers. The most important drivers are channel lateral-migration rate, channel-belt longevity, creation of accommodation space and inherited floodplain width.
Yan Zhong, Qiao Liu, Matthew Westoby, Yong Nie, Francesca Pellicciotti, Bo Zhang, Jialun Cai, Guoxiang Liu, Haijun Liao, and Xuyang Lu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 23–42,Short summary
Slope failures exist in many paraglacial regions and are the main manifestation of the interaction between debris-covered glaciers and slopes. We mapped paraglacial slope failures (PSFs) along the Hailuogou Glacier (HLG), Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We argue that the formation, evolution, and current status of these typical PSFs are generally related to glacier history and paraglacial geomorphological adjustments, and influenced by the fluctuation of climate conditions.
Sophie Bodek and Douglas J. Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1531–1543,Short summary
As rocks are transported, they undergo two attrition mechanisms: chipping, shallow cracking at low collision energies; and fragmentation, significant fracture growth from high-energy impacts. We examine the mass and shape evolution of concrete particles in a rotating drum to experimentally delineate the boundary between chipping and fragmentation. By connecting the mechanics of these attrition processes to resulting shape evolution, we can use particle shape to infer past transport conditions.
Jennifer R. Shadrick, Martin D. Hurst, Matthew D. Piggott, Bethany G. Hebditch, Alexander J. Seal, Klaus M. Wilcken, and Dylan H. Rood
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1505–1529,Short summary
Here we use topographic and 10Be concentration data to optimise a coastal evolution model. Cliff retreat rates are calculated for two UK sites for the past 8000 years and, for the first time, highlight a strong link between the rate of sea level rise and long-term cliff retreat rates. This method enables us to study past cliff response to sea level rise and so to greatly improve forecasts of future responses to accelerations in sea level rise that will result from climate change.
Marco Piantini, Florent Gimbert, Hervé Bellot, and Alain Recking
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1423–1439,Short summary
We carry out laboratory experiments to investigate the formation and propagation dynamics of exogenous sediment pulses in mountain rivers. We show that the ability of a self-formed deposit to destabilize and generate sediment pulses depends on the sand content of the mixture, while each pulse turns out to be formed by a front, a body, and a tail. Seismic measurements reveal a complex and non-unique dependency between seismic power and sediment pulse transport characteristics.
Fumitoshi Imaizumi, Atsushi Ikeda, Kazuki Yamamoto, and Okihiro Ohsaka
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1381–1398,Short summary
The rainfall threshold for debris flow occurrence was evaluated on Mt. Fuji, Japan. Debris flows during frozen periods were triggered by a smaller magnitude of rainfall than during unfrozen periods. During unfrozen periods, the threshold of maximum hourly rainfall intensity triggering debris flow was higher when the volume of channel deposits was larger. The results suggest that the occurrence of frozen ground needs to be monitored for better debris flow disaster mitigation in cold regions.
Víctor Cartelle, Natasha L. M. Barlow, David M. Hodgson, Freek S. Busschers, Kim M. Cohen, Bart M. L. Meijninger, and Wessel P. van Kesteren
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1399–1421,Short summary
Reconstructing the growth and decay of past ice sheets is critical to understand relationships between global climate and sea-level change. We take advantage of large wind-farm datasets in the southern North Sea to investigate buried landscapes left by ice sheet advance and retreat occurring about 160 000 years ago. We demonstrate the utility of offshore wind-farm data in refining palaeo-ice sheet margin limits and providing insight into the processes influencing marginal ice sheet dynamics.
Melisa A. Diaz, Lee B. Corbett, Paul R. Bierman, Byron J. Adams, Diana H. Wall, Ian D. Hogg, Noah Fierer, and W. Berry Lyons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1363–1380,Short summary
We collected soil surface samples and depth profiles every 5 cm (up to 30 cm) from 11 ice-free areas along the Shackleton Glacier, a major outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), and measured meteoric beryllium-10 and nitrate concentrations to understand the relationship between salts and beryllium-10. This relationship can help inform wetting history, landscape disturbance, and exposure duration.
Chiu H. Cheng, Jaco C. de Smit, Greg S. Fivash, Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher, Bas W. Borsje, and Karline Soetaert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1335–1346,Short summary
Shells are biogenic particles that are widespread throughout natural sandy environments and can affect the bed roughness and seabed erodibility. As studies are presently lacking, we experimentally measured ripple formation and migration using natural sand with increasing volumes of shell material under unidirectional flow in a racetrack flume. We show that shells expedite the onset of sediment transport, reduce ripple dimensions and slow their migration rate.
Christopher R. Hackney, Grigorios Vasilopoulos, Sokchhay Heng, Vasudha Darbari, Samuel Walker, and Daniel R. Parsons
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1323–1334,Short summary
Unsustainable sand mining poses a threat to the stability of river channels. We use satellite imagery to estimate volumes of material removed from the Mekong River, Cambodia, over the period 2016–2020. We demonstrate that current rates of extraction now exceed previous estimates for the entire Mekong Basin and significantly exceed the volume of sand naturally transported by the river. Our work highlights the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring sand mining activity over large areas.
Xiangang Jiang, Haiguang Cheng, Lei Gao, and Weiming Liu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1263–1277,Short summary
Boulder bars are a common form of riverbed morphology which can be affected by outburst flood. However, few studies have focused on boulder bars' formation process and development characteristics during landslide dam failure. In this paper, eight groups of dam failure experiments were carried out to study the development and geometry characteristics of boulder bars during and after dam failure. Moreover, the relationships between geometry parameters of boulder bars are investigated.
Wentao Yang, Jian Fang, and Jing Liu-Zeng
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1251–1262,Short summary
The eastern Tibetan Plateau is an ideal place to study interactions among different geomorphic drivers. We report the impacts of two 2018 landslide-lake outburst floods up to 100 km distance downstream of the Jinsha River. By using remote sensing images, we found that the 2018 floods caused many hillslopes to slump during the prolonged period afterwards. The finding could help us to obtain a holistic picture of LLF impacts and improve geomorphic models of landscape evolution.
Anthony, E. J., Vanhee, S., and Ruz, M. H.: An assessment of the impact of experimental brushwood fences on foredune sand accumulation based on digital elelvation models, Ecol. Eng., 31, 41–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.05.005, 2007.
Biel, R. G., Hacker, S. D., Ruggiero, P., Cohn, N., and Seabloom, E. W.: Coastal protection and conservation on sandy beaches and dunes: Context-dependent tradeoffs in ecosystem service supply, Ecosphere, 8, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1791, 2017.
Biel, R. G., Hacker, S. D., and Ruggiero, P.: Elucidating coastal foredune ecomorphodynamics in the US Pacific Northwest via Bayesian networks, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 124, 1919–1938, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JF004758, 2019.
Bossard, V. and Nicolae Lerma, A.: Geomorphologic characteristics and evolution of managed dunes on the South West Coast of France, Geomorphology, 367, 107312, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107312, 2020.
Brodie, K., Conery, I., Cohn, N., Spore, N., and Palmsten, M.: Spatial Variability of Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part A: Timescales of Months to Years, J. Mar. Sci. Eng., 7, 1–28, https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7050124, 2019.
Burroughs, S. M. and Tebbens, S. F.: Dune Retreat and Shoreline Change on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, J. Coast. Res., 2, 104–112, https://doi.org/10.2112/05-0583.1, 2008.
Charbonneau, B. R. and Wnek, J. P.: Reactionary fence installation for post-Superstorm Sandy dune recovery, Shore Beach, 84, 42–48, 2016.
Claudino-Sales, V., Wang, P., and Horwitz, M. H.: Factors controlling the survival of coastal dunes during multiple hurricane impacts in 2004 and 2005: Santa Rosa barrier island, Florida, Geomorphology, 95, 295–315, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.06.004, 2008.
Cohn, N., Ruggiero, P., García-Medina, G., Anderson, D., Serafin, K. A., and Biel, R.: Environmental and morphologic controls on wave-induced dune response, Geomorphology, 108–128, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2018.12.023, 2019.
Cutler, E., Albert, M., and White, K.: Tradeoffs between beach nourishment and managed retreat: Insights from dynamic programming for climate adaptation decisions, Environ. Model. Softw., 125, 104603, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2019.104603, 2020.
Davidson, S. G., Hesp, P. A., and da Silva, G. M.: Controls on dune scarping, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 44, 923–947, https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133320932880, 2020.
Defeo, O., McLachlan, A., Schoeman, D. S., Schlacher, T. A., Dugan, J., Jones, A., Lastra, M., and Scapini, F.: Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 81, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2008.09.022, 2009.
Durán, O. and Moore, L. J.: Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 17217–17222, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1307580110, 2013.
Durán, R., Guillén, J., Ruiz, A., Jiménez, J. A., and Sagristà, E.: Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean), Geomorphology, 274, 129–142, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.09.012, 2016.
Elko, N., Brodie, K., Stockdon, H., Nordstrom, K., Houser, C., Mckenna, K., Moore, L., Rosati, J., Ruggiero, P., Thuman, R., and Walker, I.: Dune management challenges on developed coasts, Shore Beach, 84, 1–14, 2016.
Gibbs, M. T.: Why is coastal retreat so hard to implement? Understanding the political risk of coastal adaptation pathways, Ocean Coast. Manage., 130, 107–114, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.06.002, 2016.
Goldstein, E. B., Mullins, E. V., Ruggiero, P., Hacker, S. D., Brown, J. K., Biel, R. G., Jay, K. R., Mostow, R. S., Moore, L. J., and Zinnert, J. C.: Literature-based latitudinal distribution and possible range shifts of two US east coast dune grass species (Uniola paniculata and Ammophila breviligulata), Peer J., 6, e4932, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4932, 2018.
Hacker, S. D., Zarnetske, P., Seabloom, E., Ruggiero, P., Mull, J., Gerrity, S., and Jones, C.: Subtle differences in two non-native congeneric beach grasses significantly affect their colonization, spread, and impact, Oikos, 121, 138–148, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.18887.x, 2012.
Hacker, S. D., Jay, K. R., Cohn, N., Goldstein, E. B., Hovenga, P. A., Itzkin, M., Moore, L. J., Mostow, R. S., Mullins, E. V., and Ruggiero, P.: Species-Specific Functional Morphology of Four US Atlantic Coast Dune Grasses: Biogeographic Implications for Dune Shape and Coastal Protection, Diversity, 11, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.3390/d11050082, 2019.
Hesp, P.: Foredunes and blowouts: initiation, geomorphology and dynamics, Geomorphology, 48, 245–268, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(02)00184-8, 2002.
Houser, C., Wernette, P., Rentschlar, E., Jones, H., Hammond, B., and Trimble, S.: Post-storm beach and dune recovery: Implications for barrier island resilience, Geomorphology, 234, 54–63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.12.044, 2015.
Itzkin, M., Moore, L. J., Ruggiero, P., and Hacker, S. D.: The effect of sand fencing on the morphology of natural dune systems, Geomorphology, 352, 106995, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2019.106995, 2020a.
Itzkin, M., Moore, L. J., Ruggiero, P., Hacker, S. D. and Biel, R. G.: The Influence of Dune Aspect Ratio, Beach Width and Storm Characteristics on Dune Erosion for Managed and Unmanaged Beaches Data [Data set], , doi:10.5281/zenodo.4744544, 2020b.
Jackson, N. L. and Nordstrom, K. F.: Aeolian sediment transport on a recovering storm-eroded foredune with sand fences, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 43, 1310–1320, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4315, 2018.
Jay, K. R., Hacker, S. D., Hovenga, P. A., Moore, L. J., and Ruggiero, P.: Sand supply and dune grass species affect foredune shape along the US Central Atlantic Coast, Ecosphere, in review, 2021.
Komar, P. D. and McDougal, W. G.: The analysis of exponential beach profiles, J. Coast. Res., 10, 59–69, 1994.
Larson, M., Erikson, L., and Hanson, H.: An analytical model to predict dune erosion due to wave impact, Coast. Eng., 51, 675–696, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2004.07.003, 2004.
Leaman, C. K., Harley, M. D., Splinter, K. D., Thran, M. C., Kinsela, M. A., and Turner, I. L.: A storm hazard matrix combining coastal flooding and beach erosion, EarthArXiv: prepring, https://doi.org/10.31223/X5Q592, 2020.
Leatherman, S. P.: Migration of Assateague Island, Maryland, by inlet and overwash processes, Geology, 7, 104–107, 1979.
Lorenzo-Trueba, J. and Ashton, A. D.: Rollover, drowning, and discontinuous retreat: Distinct modes of barrier response to sea-level rise arising from a simple morphodynamic model, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 119, 779–801, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JF002941, 2014.
Long, J. W., de Bakker, A. T. M., and Plant, N. G.: Scaling coastal dune elevation changes across storm-impact regimes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 2899–2906, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL059616, 2014.
Magliocca, N. R., McNamara, D. E., and Murray, A. B.: Long-Term, Large-Scale Morphodynamic Effects of Artificial Dune Construction along a Barrier Island Coastline, J. Coastal Res., 276, 918–930, https://doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-10-00088.1, 2011.
Maun, M. A.: Adaptations of plants to burial in coastal sand dunes, Can. J. Bot., 76, 713–738, https://doi.org/10.1139/b98-058, 1998.
McCall, R. T., Van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M., Plant, N. G., Van Dongeren, A. R., Roelvink, J. A., Thompson, D. M., and Reniers, A. J. H. M.: Two-dimensional time dependent hurricane overwash and erosion modeling at Santa Rosa Island, Coast. Eng., 57, 668–683, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2010.02.006, 2010.
Miller, D. L., Thetford, M., and Yager, L.: Evaluation of Sand Fence and Vegetation for Dune Building following Overwash by Hurricane Opal on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, J. Coast. Res., 17, 936–948, 2001.
Moore, L. J., List, J. H., Williams, S. J. and Stolper, D.: Complexities in barrier island response to sea level rise: Insights from numerical model experiments, North Carolina Outer Banks, J. Geophys. Res., 115, 1–27, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001299, 2010.
Moore, L. J., Vinent, O. D., and Ruggiero, P.: Vegetation control allows autocyclic formation of multiple dunes on prograding coasts, Geology, 44, 559–562, https://doi.org/10.1130/G37778.1, 2016.
NOAA: 2016 USACE Post-Matthew Topobathy Lidar: Southeast Coast (VA, NC, SC, GA, FL) Point Cloud files with Orthometric Vertical Datum North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) using GEOID18, available at: https://chs.coast.noaa.gov/htdata/lidar2_z/geoid18/data/5184/, last access: 3 September 2021.
Nordstrom, K. F. and Jackson, N. L.: Foredune restoration in urban settings, in: Restoration of Coastal Dunes, edited by: Martinez, M. L., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 17–31, 2013.
Nordstrom, K. F., Lampe, R., and Vandemark, L. M.: Reestablishing naturally functioning dunes on developed coasts, Environ. Manage., 25, 37–51, https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679910004, 2000.
Palmsten, M. L. and Holman, R. A.: Infiltration and instability in dune erosion, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 116, 1–18, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007083, 2011.
Palmsten, M. L. and Holman, R. A.: Laboratory investigation of dune erosion using stereo video, Coast. Eng., 60, 123–135, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2011.09.003, 2012.
Palmsten, M. L. and Splinter, K. D.: Observations and simulations of wave runup during a laboratory dune erosion experiment, Coast. Eng., 115, 58–66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2016.01.007, 2016.
Rogers, L. J., Moore, L. J., Goldstein, E. B., Hein, C. J., Lorenzo-Trueba, J., and Ashton, A. D.: Anthropogenic controls on overwash deposition: Evidence and consequences, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 120, 2609–2624, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003634, 2015.
Roelvink, D., Reniers, A., van Dongeren, A., van Thiel de Vries, J., McCall, R., and Lescinski, J.: Modelling storm impacts on beaches, dunes and barrier islands, Coast. Eng., 56, 1133–1152, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.08.006, 2009.
Roelvink, D., McCall, R., Mehvar, S., Nederhoff, K., and Dastgheib, A.: Improving predictions of swash dynamics in XBeach: The role of groupiness and incident-band runup, Coast. Eng., 134, 103–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.07.004, 2018.
Ruggiero, P., Komar, P. D., McDougal, W. G., Marra, J. J., and Bach, R. A.: Wave runup, extreme water levels and the erosion of properties backing beaches, J. Coast. Res., 17, 407–419, 2001.
Ruggiero, P., Holman, R. A., and Beach, R. A.: Wave run-up on a high-energy dissipative beach, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 109, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002160, 2004.
Sallenger, A. H.: Storm Impact Scale for Barrier Islands, J. Coast. Res., 16, 890–895, 2000.
Seabloom, E. W., Ruggiero, P., Hacker, S. D., Mull, J., and Zarnetske, P.: Invasive grasses, climate change, and exposure to storm-wave overtopping in coastal dune ecosystems, Global Change Biol., 19, 824–832, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12078, 2013.
Silva, F. G., Wijnberg, K. M., de Groot, A. V., and Hulscher, S. J. M. H.: The effects of beach width variability on coastal dune development at decadal scales, Geomorphology, 329, 58–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2018.12.012, 2018.
Splinter, K. D. and Palmsten, M. L.: Modeling dune response to an East Coast Low, Mar. Geol., 329–331, 46–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2012.09.005, 2012.
Stallins, J. A. and Parker, A. J.: The influence of complex systems interactions on barrier Island dune vegetation pattern and process, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr., 93, 13–29, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.93102, 2003.
Stockdon, H. F., Holman, R. A., Howd, P. A., and Sallenger, A. H.: Empirical parameterization of setup, swash, and runup, Coast. Eng., 53, 573–588, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.12.005, 2006.
Stockdon, H. F., Sallenger, A. H., Holman, R. A., and Howd, P. A.: A simple model for the spatially-variable coastal response to hurricanes, Mar. Geol., 238, 1–20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2006.11.004, 2007.
Straub, J. A., Rodriguez, A. B., Luettich, R. A., Moore, L. J., Itzkin, M., Ridge, J. T., Seymour, A. C., Johnston, D. W., and Theuerkauf, E. J.: The role of beach state and the timing of pre-storm surveys in determining the accuracy of storm impact assessments, Mar. Geol., 425, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2020.106201, 2020.
Van Puijenbroek, M. E. B., Nolet, C., De Groot, A. V., Suomalainen, J. M., Riksen, M. J. P. M., Berendse, F., and Limpens, J.: Exploring the contributions of vegetation and dune size to early dune development using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging, Biogeosciences, 14, 5533–5549, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-5533-2017, 2017.
Vousdoukas, M. I., Ferreira, Ó., Almeida, L. P., and Pacheco, A.: Toward reliable storm-hazard forecasts: XBeach calibration and its potential application in an operational early-warning system, Ocean Dynam., 62, 1001–1015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-012-0544-6, 2012.
Woodhouse, W. W., Seneca, E. D., and Broome, S. W.: Effect of species on dune grass growth, Int. J. Biometeorol., 21, 256–266, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01552879, 1977.
Zarnetske, P. L., Seabloom, E. W., and Hacker, S. D.: Non-target effects of invasive species management: beachgrass, birds, and bulldozers in coastal dunes, Ecosphere, 1, 13, https://doi.org/10.1890/ES10-00101.1, 2010.
Zarnetske, P. L., Hacker, S. D., Seabloom, E. W., Ruggiero, P., Killian, J. R., Maddux, T. B., and Cox, D.: Biophysical Feedback Mediates Effects of Invasive Grasses on Coastal Dune Shape, Ecology, 93, 1439–1450, https://doi.org/10.1890/11-1112.1, 2012.
Studies of the impact of storms on dunes typically focus on the importance of dune elevation, here we analyze the protective services offered by the dune height and width, the morphology of the beach fronting the dune, and artificial dune construction via the use of sand fences. We find that dune volume loss most strongly correlates to beach width rather than dune shape, although when beach width is controlled for low and wide dunes offer greater protection than tall and narrow dunes.
Studies of the impact of storms on dunes typically focus on the importance of dune elevation,...