Articles | Volume 7, issue 2
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Spatial and temporal patterns of sediment storage and erosion following a wildfire and extreme flood
Daniel J. Brogan
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1372, USA
Peter A. Nelson
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1372, USA
Lee H. MacDonald
Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1476, USA
Related subject area
Physical: Geomorphology (including all aspects of fluvial, coastal, aeolian, hillslope and glacial geomorphology)Geology and vegetation control landsliding on forest-managed slopes in scarplandsEntrainment and deposition of boulders in a gravel bed riverCoupling between downstream variations of channel width and local pool–riffle bed topographyA combined approach of experimental and numerical modeling for 3D hydraulic features of a step-pool unitCombining seismic signal dynamic inversion and numerical modeling improves landslide process reconstructionResponse of modern fluvial sediments to regional tectonic activity along the upper Min River, eastern TibetGeophysical evidence of massive hyperconcentrated push waves with embedded toma hills caused by the Flims rockslide, SwitzerlandComparison of calibration characteristics of different acoustic impact systems for measuring bedload transport in mountain streamsEpisodic sediment supply to alluvial fans: implications for fan incision and morphometryExploring the transition between water and wind-dominated landscapes in Deep Springs, California as an analog for transitioning landscapes on MarsFailure mode of rainfall-induced landslide of granite residual soil, southeastern Guangxi Province, ChinaExploring exogenous controls on short- versus long-term erosion rates globallyThe effects of late Cenozoic climate change on the global distribution of frost crackingTransitional rock glaciers at sea level in northern NorwayGrain size of fluvial gravel bars from close-range UAV imagery – uncertainty in segmentation-based dataToward a general calibration of the Swiss plate geophone system for fractional bedload transportQuantification of post-glacier bedrock surface erosion in the European Alps using 10Be and optically stimulated luminescence exposure datingA comparison of 1D and 2D bedload transport functions under high excess shear stress conditions in laterally constrained gravel-bed rivers: a laboratory studyModeling the Inhibition Effect of Straw Checkerboard Barriers on Wind-blown SandBack to pristine levels: a meta-analysis of suspended sediment transport in large German river channelsThe story of a summit nucleus: Hillslope boulders and their effect on erosional patterns and landscape morphology in the Chilean Coastal CordilleraShort communication: Forward and inverse analytic models relating river long profile to tectonic uplift history, assuming a nonlinear slope–erosion dependencyProbabilistic description of bedload fluxes from the aggregate dynamics of individual grainsEffect of debris-flow sediment grain-size distribution on fan morphologyControls on earthflow formation in the Teanaway River basin, central Washington State, USALinking levee-building processes with channel avulsion: geomorphic analysis for assessing avulsion frequency and channel reoccupationThe imprint of erosion by glacial lake outburst floods in the topography of central Himalayan riversVolume, evolution, and sedimentation of future glacier lakes in Switzerland over the 21st centuryTheoretical and numerical considerations of rivers in a tectonically inactive forelandSuspended sediment and discharge dynamics in a glaciated alpine environment: identifying crucial areas and time periods on several spatial and temporal scales in the Ötztal, AustriaA multi-proxy assessment of terrace formation in the lower Trinity River valley, TexasAlpine rock glacier activity over Holocene to modern timescales (western French Alps)Arctic Delta Reduced Complexity Model and its Reproduction of Key Geomorphological StructuresSpatio-temporal variability and controlling factors for postglacial denudation rates in the Dora Baltea catchment (western Italian Alps)Continuous measurements of valley floor width in mountainous landscapesOrganic carbon burial by river meandering partially offsets bank erosion carbon fluxes in a discontinuous permafrost floodplainEstuarine morphodynamics and development modified by floodplain formationConvolutional neural networks for image-based sediment detection applied to a large terrestrial and airborne datasetA geomorphic-process-based cellular automata model of colluvial wedge morphology and stratigraphySignal response of the Swiss plate geophone monitoring system impacted by bedload particles with different transport modesMorphodynamic styles: characterising the behaviour of gravel-bed rivers using a novel, quantitative indexRapid Holocene bedrock canyon incision of Beida River, North Qilian Shan, ChinaThe landslide velocityAn analytical model for beach erosion downdrift of groins: case study of Jeongdongjin Beach, KoreaPermafrost in monitored unstable rock slopes in Norway – new insights from temperature and surface velocity measurements, geophysical surveying, and ground temperature modellingThe role of geological mouth islands on the morphodynamics of back-barrier tidal basinsFrom apex to shoreline: fluvio-deltaic architecture for the Holocene Rhine–Meuse delta, the NetherlandsIntensified paraglacial slope failures due to accelerating downwasting of a temperate glacier in Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan PlateauBreaking down chipping and fragmentation in sediment transport: the control of material strengthMulti-objective optimisation of a rock coast evolution model with cosmogenic 10Be analysis for the quantification of long-term cliff retreat rates
Daniel Draebing, Tobias Gebhard, and Miriam Pheiffer
Earth Surf. Dynam., 11, 71–88,Short summary
Scarpland formation produced low-inclined slopes susceptible to deep-seated landsliding on geological scales. These landslide-affected slopes are often used for forestry activities today, and interaction between geology and vegetation controls shallow landsliding. Our data show that Feuerletten clays control deep-seated landsliding processes that can be reactivated. When trees are sufficiently dense to provide lateral root cohesion, trees can prevent the occurrence of shallow landslides.
Pascal Allemand, Eric Lajeunesse, Olivier Devauchelle, and Vincent J. Langlois
Earth Surf. Dynam., 11, 21–32,Short summary
We recorded yearly images of a bar of the Vieux-Habitants river, a river located on Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe). These images, combined with measurements of the river discharge, allow us to monitor the evolution of the population of boulders. We estimate the smallest discharge that can move the boulders and calculate the effective transport time. We show that the likelihood of a given boulder remaining at the same location decreases exponentially, with an effective residence time of 17 h.
Shawn M. Chartrand, A. Mark Jellinek, Marwan A. Hassan, and Carles Ferrer-Boix
Earth Surf. Dynam., 11, 1–20,Short summary
Rivers with alternating patterns of shallow and deep flows are commonly observed where a river widens and then narrows, respectively. But what if width changes over time? We use a lab experiment to address this question and find it is possible to decrease and then increase river width at a specific location and observe that flows deepen and then shallow consistent with expectations. Our observations can inform river restoration and climate adaptation programs that emphasize river corridors.
Chendi Zhang, Yuncheng Xu, Marwan A. Hassan, Mengzhen Xu, and Pukang He
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1253–1272,Short summary
Step-pool morphology is common in mountain streams. The geomorphic processes of step-pool features closely interact with hydraulic properties, which have limited access due to measurement difficulties. We established a combined approach using both physical experiments and numerical simulations to acquire detailed three-dimensional hydraulics for step-pool morphology, which improves the understanding of the links between hydraulics and morphology for a step-pool feature.
Yan Yan, Yifei Cui, Xinghui Huang, Jiaojiao Zhou, Wengang Zhang, Shuyao Yin, Jian Guo, and Sheng Hu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1233–1252,Short summary
Landslides present a significant hazard for humans, but continuous landslide monitoring is not yet possible due to their unpredictability. Our study has demonstrated that combing landslide seismic signal analysis, dynamic inversion, and numerical simulation provides a comprehensive and accurate method for studying the landslide process. The approach outlined in this study could be used to support hazard prevention and control in sensitive areas.
Wei Shi, Hanchao Jiang, Hongyan Xu, Siyuan Ma, Jiawei Fan, Siqi Zhang, Qiaoqiao Guo, and Xiaotong Wei
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1195–1209,Short summary
Alpine valleys reduce the preservation potential of Quaternary sediment in bedrock valley regions, which seriously hinders the study of modern tectonic activity. We report a new method to reveal regional tectonic activity by analyzing fluvial sediments in tectonically active regions. Our analyses identify three segments of different tectonic activities along the upper Min River, eastern Tibet. This method provides a key framework to reveal tectonic activity in other regions of the world.
Sibylle Knapp, Michael Schwenk, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1185–1193,Short summary
The Flims area in the Swiss Alps has fascinated the researchers with its complex geological history ever since. Especially the order of events related to the Tamins and Flims rockslides has long been debated. This paper presents novel results based on up to 160 m deep geophysical profiles, which show onlaps of the Bonaduz Formation onto the Tamins deposits (Ils Aults) and thus indicate that the Tamins rockslide occurred first. The consecutive evolution of this landscape is shown in four phases.
Dieter Rickenmann, Lorenz Ammann, Tobias Nicollier, Stefan Boss, Bruno Fritschi, Gilles Antoniazza, Nicolas Steeb, Zheng Chen, Carlos Wyss, and Alexandre Badoux
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1165–1183,Short summary
The Swiss plate geophone system has been installed and tested in more than 20 steep gravel-bed streams. It is an indirect bedload transport measuring system. We compare the performance of this system with three alternative surrogate measuring systems, using calibration measurements with direct bedload samples from three field sites and an outdoor flume facility. Three of the four systems resulted in robust calibration relations between signal impulse counts and transported bedload mass.
Anya S. Leenman and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1097–1114,Short summary
The supply of sediment (sand and gravel) carried by a stream out of a steep mountain valley is widely thought to control the gradient of the fan-shaped landforms that streams often build where they leave their valley. We tested this idea in a set of
sandboxexperiments with oscillating high and low sediment supply. Even though the average sediment supply never changed, longer oscillations built flatter fans, indicating how wetter climates might affect these mountain landforms.
Taylor Dorn and Mackenzie Day
Planetary surfaces are shaped by both wind and water were their resulting surface features are commonly observed by aerial images. Deep Springs playa, CA provides an comparable wet-to-dry transitioning landscape as experienced in Mars' past. Our results, made through collected weather data and drone footage, showed that some features, when observed solely by aerial imagery might be interpreted as being formed by wind when in fact other processes were more influential in their formation.
Shanbai Wu, Ruihua Zhao, Liping Liao, Yunchuan Yang, Yao Wei, and Wenzhi Wei
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1079–1096,Short summary
Granite residual soil landslides are widely distributed in southeastern Guangxi Province, China. To understand the failure mode, the landslide can provide a scientific basis for early warning and prevention. In this study, we conducted artificial flume model tests to investigate the failure mode of granite residual soil landslide. The research provides valuable references for the prevention and early warning of granite residual soil landslide in the southeast of Guangxi.
Shiuan-An Chen, Katerina Michaelides, David A. Richards, and Michael Bliss Singer
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1055–1078,Short summary
Drainage basin erosion rates influence landscape evolution through controlling land surface lowering and sediment flux, but gaps remain in understanding their large-scale patterns and drivers between timescales. We analysed global erosion rates and show that long-term erosion rates are controlled by rainfall, former glacial processes, and basin landform, whilst human activities enhance short-term erosion rates. The results highlight the complex interplay of controls on land surface processes.
Hemanti Sharma, Sebastian G. Mutz, and Todd A. Ehlers
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 997–1015,Short summary
We estimate global changes in frost cracking intensity (FCI) using process-based models for four time slices in the late Cenozoic ranging from the Pliocene (∼ 3 Ma) to pre-industrial (∼ 1850 CE, PI). For all time slices, results indicate that FCI was most prevalent in middle to high latitudes and high-elevation lower-latitude areas such as Tibet. Larger deviations (relative to PI) were observed in colder (LGM) and warmer climates (Pliocene) due to differences in temperature and glaciation.
Karianne S. Lilleøren, Bernd Etzelmüller, Line Rouyet, Trond Eiken, Gaute Slinde, and Christin Hilbich
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 975–996,Short summary
In northern Norway we have observed several rock glaciers at sea level. Rock glaciers are landforms that only form under the influence of permafrost, which is frozen ground. Our investigations show that the rock glaciers are probably not active under the current climate but most likely were active in the recent past. This shows how the Arctic now changes due to climate changes and also how similar areas in currently colder climates will change in the future.
David Mair, Ariel Henrique Do Prado, Philippos Garefalakis, Alessandro Lechmann, Alexander Whittaker, and Fritz Schlunegger
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 953–973,Short summary
Grain size data are important for studying and managing rivers, but they are difficult to obtain in the field. Therefore, methods have been developed that use images from small and remotely piloted aircraft. However, uncertainty in grain size data from such image-based products is understudied. Here we present a new way of uncertainty estimation that includes fully modeled errors. We use this technique to assess the effect of several image acquisition aspects on grain size uncertainty.
Tobias Nicollier, Gilles Antoniazza, Lorenz Ammann, Dieter Rickenmann, and James W. Kirchner
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 929–951,Short summary
Monitoring sediment transport is relevant for flood safety and river restoration. However, the spatial and temporal variability of sediment transport processes makes their prediction challenging. We investigate the feasibility of a general calibration relationship between sediment transport rates and the impact signals recorded by metal plates installed in the channel bed. We present a new calibration method based on flume experiments and apply it to an extensive dataset of field measurements.
Joanne Elkadi, Benjamin Lehmann, Georgina E. King, Olivia Steinemann, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Marcus Christl, and Frédéric Herman
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 909–928,Short summary
Glacial and non-glacial processes have left a strong imprint on the landscape of the European Alps, but further research is needed to better understand their long-term effects. We apply a new technique combining two methods for bedrock surface dating to calculate post-glacier erosion rates next to a Swiss glacier. Interestingly, the results suggest non-glacial erosion rates are higher than previously thought, but glacial erosion remains the most influential on landscape evolution.
David L. Adams and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 895–907,Short summary
Channel processes under flood conditions are important for river science and management as they involve high volumes of sediment transport and erosion. However, these processes remain poorly understood as the data are difficult to collect. Using a physical model of a river, we found that simple equations based on the mean shear stress and median grain size predicted sediment transport as accurately as ones that accounted for the full range of shear stresses.
Straw checkerboard barriers (SCBs) have been widely used in the anti-desertification projects. However, research on mechanism and its laying length are still lacking. The significance of our work is to analyze some results which seemingly simple but lack of theoretical basis from the perspective of turbulence through this model, which may provide the theoretical support for the minimum laying length of SCBs in anti-desertification projects.
Thomas O. Hoffmann, Yannik Baulig, Stefan Vollmer, Jan Blöthe, and Peter Fiener
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
We analysed more than 440.000 measurements from the suspended sediment monitoring to show that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in large rivers in Germany strongly decline by 50 % between 1990 and 2010. We argue that SSC achieves the natural back ground concentrations, due to reduced sediment supply. There is simple explanation for this decline, but effects of reduced supply from headwater streams are most likely the cause for declining SSC in large rivers.
Emma Lodes, Dirk Scherler, Renee van Dongen, and Hella Wittmann
We investigate the effect of fractures on the location of hills and valleys in bedrock landscapes, by comparing erosion rates of unfractured bedrock versus soil. Unfractured bedrock erodes slower, and soil, which likely overlies fractured bedrock, erodes faster. We also find that streams generally follow the orientations of faults. Together, our data show that fractures influence landscapes by weakening bedrock, causing it to erode faster and to eventually form a valley where a stream may flow.
Yizhou Wang, Liran Goren, Dewen Zheng, and Huiping Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 833–849,Short summary
Abrupt changes in tectonic uplift rates induce sharp changes in river profile, called knickpoints. When river erosion depends non-linearly on slope, we develop an analytic model for knickpoint velocity and find the condition of knickpoint merging. Then we develop analytic models that represent the two-directional link between tectonic changes and river profile evolution. The derivation provides new understanding on the links between tectonic changes and river profile evolution.
J. Kevin Pierce, Marwan A. Hassan, and Rui M. L. Ferreira
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 817–832,Short summary
We describe the flow of sediment in river channels by replacing the complicated details of the turbulent water with probability arguments. Our major conclusions are that (1) sediment transport can be phrased in terms of the movements of individual sediment grains, (2) transport rates in river channels are inherently uncertain, and (3) sediment transport in rivers is directly analogous to a number of phenomena which we understand relatively well, such as molecules moving in air.
Haruka Tsunetaka, Norifumi Hotta, Yuichi Sakai, and Thad Wasklewicz
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 775–796,Short summary
To assess the effects of differences in grain-size distribution within debris flows on the morphology of debris-flow fans, fan morphologies were modeled experimentally. Even if debris flows exhibited similar flow properties, their runout distance differed in response to differences in their grain-size distribution. Differences in runout distance were responsible for variations in the direction of the descending flow that resulted in different debris-flow fan morphology.
Sarah A. Schanz and A. Peyton Colee
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 761–774,Short summary
We mapped and dated 187 earthflows to determine controls on earthflow formation and resulting topographic changes in the Teanaway basin, central Washington State, USA. Using a new relative dating technique and absolute dating, we find that 25 % of earthflows were active in the last ~500 years. Earthflows are lithologically controlled, actively narrow valleys, and increase sediment loads.
Jeongyeon Han and Wonsuck Kim
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 743–759,Short summary
A levee-building model is presented to investigate the effects of flood on levee slope and river behaviors. Coarser grains that cause steep levee slopes lead to frequent switchings of river paths, but higher overflow velocity has an opposite effect. High levee slopes lead to more reoccupations of abandoned old river paths than low levee slopes when rivers switch their locations. The study helps us to assess flood hazards with river-path switching.
Maxwell P. Dahlquist and A. Joshua West
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 705–722,Short summary
Himalayan rivers are full of giant boulders that rarely move except during glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), which therefore must be important drivers of erosion in the Himalayas. GLOFs are rare, so little is known about their long-term erosional impact. We found that rivers in Nepal have channel geometry that, compared with markers of upstream glaciation, confirm GLOFs as a major control on erosion. This previously unrecognized control should be accounted for in landscape evolution studies.
Tim Steffen, Matthias Huss, Rebekka Estermann, Elias Hodel, and Daniel Farinotti
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 723–741,Short summary
Climate change is rapidly altering high-alpine landscapes. The formation of new lakes in areas becoming ice free due to glacier retreat is one of the many consequences of this process. Here, we provide an estimate for the number, size, time of emergence, and sediment infill of future glacier lakes that will emerge in the Swiss Alps. We estimate that up to ~ 680 potential lakes could form over the course of the 21st century, with the potential to hold a total water volume of up to ~ 1.16 km3.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 671–686,Short summary
Many studies on modeling landform evolution have focused on mountain ranges, while large parts of Earth's surface are quite flat and alluvial plains have been preferred locations for human settlements. Conducting large-scale simulations of fluvial erosion and sediment transport, this study reveals that rivers in a tectonically inactive foreland are much more dynamic than rivers in a mountain range; the local redistribution of deposits in the foreland is the main driver of the dynamics.
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Erwin Rottler, Theresa Blume, Johannes Schöber, and Axel Bronstert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 653–669,Short summary
Climate change fundamentally alters glaciated high-alpine areas, but it is unclear how this affects riverine sediment transport. As a first step, we aimed to identify the most important processes and source areas in three nested catchments in the Ötztal, Austria, in the past 15 years. We found that areas above 2500 m were crucial and that summer rainstorms were less influential than glacier melt. These findings provide a baseline for studies on future changes in high-alpine sediment dynamics.
Hima J. Hassenruck-Gudipati, Thaddeus Ellis, Timothy A. Goudge, and David Mohrig
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 635–651,Short summary
During the late Pleistocene, the incision of the Trinity River valley left behind terraces. Elevation data and measurements of abandoned channels preserved on terraces are used to evaluate how terraces formed. We find a transition in the style of terraces with age from those associated with external environmental forcings to those produced by internal river migration changes. This result shows the importance of several indicators (i.e., channel bends, elevations) in determining terrace form.
Benjamin Lehmann, Robert S. Anderson, Xavier Bodin, Diego Cusicanqui, Pierre G. Valla, and Julien Carcaillet
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 605–633,Short summary
Rock glaciers are some of the most frequently occurring landforms containing ice in mountain environments. Here, we use field observations, analysis of aerial and satellite images, and dating methods to investigate the activity of the rock glacier of the Vallon de la Route in the French Alps. Our results suggest that the rock glacier is characterized by two major episodes of activity and that the rock glacier system promotes the maintenance of mountain erosion.
Ngai-Ham Chan, Moritz Langer, Bennet Juhls, Tabea Rettelbach, Paul Overduin, Kimberly Huppert, and Jean Braun
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
Arctic river deltas influence how nutrients and soil organic carbon, carried by sediments from the Arctic landscape, are retained or released into the Arctic Ocean. Under climate change, the deltas themselves and their ecosystems are becoming more vulnerable. We build upon previous models to reproduce for the first time an important feature seen in all Arctic deltas, and simulate its future under a warming climate. This can impact the future of Arctic deltas and the carbon release they moderate.
Elena Serra, Pierre G. Valla, Romain Delunel, Natacha Gribenski, Marcus Christl, and Naki Akçar
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 493–512,Short summary
Alpine landscapes are transformed by several erosion processes. 10Be concentrations measured in river sediments at the outlet of a basin represent a powerful tool to quantify how fast the catchment erodes. We measured erosion rates within the Dora Baltea catchments (western Italian Alps). Our results show that erosion is governed by topography, bedrock resistance and glacial imprint. The Mont Blanc massif has the highest erosion and therefore dominates the sediment flux of the Dora Baltea river.
Fiona J. Clubb, Eliot F. Weir, and Simon M. Mudd
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 437–456,Short summary
River valleys are important components of mountain systems: they are the most fertile part of landscapes and store sediment which is transported from mountains to surrounding basins. Our knowledge of the location and shape of valleys is hindered by our ability to measure them over large areas. We present a new method for measuring the width of mountain valleys continuously along river channels from digital topography and show that our method can be used to test common models of river widening.
Madison M. Douglas, Gen K. Li, Woodward W. Fischer, Joel C. Rowland, Preston C. Kemeny, A. Joshua West, Jon Schwenk, Anastasia P. Piliouras, Austin J. Chadwick, and Michael P. Lamb
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 421–435,Short summary
Arctic rivers erode into permafrost and mobilize organic carbon, which can react to form greenhouse gasses or be re-buried in floodplain deposits. We collected samples on a permafrost floodplain in Alaska to determine if more carbon is eroded or deposited by river meandering. The floodplain contained a mixture of young carbon fixed by the biosphere and old, re-deposited carbon. Thus, sediment storage may allow Arctic river floodplains to retain aged organic carbon even when permafrost thaws.
Maarten G. Kleinhans, Lonneke Roelofs, Steven A. H. Weisscher, Ivar R. Lokhorst, and Lisanne Braat
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 367–381,Short summary
Floodplain formation in estuaries limit the ebb and flood flow, reducing channel migration and shortening the tidally influenced reach. Vegetation establishment on bars reduces local flow velocity and concentrates flow into channels, while mudflats fill accommodation space and reduce channel migration. These results are based on experimental estuaries in the Metronome facility supported by numerical flow modelling.
Xingyu Chen, Marwan A. Hassan, and Xudong Fu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 349–366,Short summary
We compiled a large image dataset containing more than 125 000 sediments and developed a model (GrainID) based on convolutional neural networks to measure individual grain size from images. The model was calibrated on flume and natural stream images covering a wide range of fluvial environments. The model showed high performance compared with other methods. Our model showed great potential for grain size measurements from a small patch of sediment in a flume to a watershed-scale drone survey.
Harrison J. Gray, Christopher B. DuRoss, Sylvia R. Nicovich, and Ryan D. Gold
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 329–348,Short summary
Some types of big earthquakes create small cliffs or
fault scarps∼1–3 m in height, where sediments can pile up and create deposits we call
colluvial wedges. Geologists will look at colluvial wedges and use them to understand how often big earthquakes occur. Here we made a computer simulation to find out if the way we think colluvial wedges form works with physics. We found that it does in theory, but there are conditions in which it may be more complicated than we expected.
Zheng Chen, Siming He, Tobias Nicollier, Lorenz Ammann, Alexandre Badoux, and Dieter Rickenmann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 279–300,Short summary
Bedload flux quantification remains challenging in river dynamics due to variable transport modes. We used a passive monitoring device to record the acoustic signals generated by the impacts of bedload particles with different transport modes, and established the relationship between the triggered signals and bedload characteristics. The findings of this study could improve our understanding of the monitoring system and bedload transport process, and contribute to bedload size classification.
William H. Booker and Brett C. Eaton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 247–260,Short summary
Channel behaviour is a qualitative aspect of river research that needs development to produce a framework of analysis between and within types of channels. We seek to produce a quantitative metric that can capture how a channel changes using a pair of experiments and collecting easy to obtain data. We demonstrate that this new technique is capable of discerning between river types and may provide a new tool with which we may describe channel behaviour.
Yiran Wang, Michael E. Oskin, Youli Li, and Huiping Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 191–208,Short summary
Beida River has an over-steepened reach presently located 10 km upstream of the North Qilian mountain front. It was formed because river incising into the bedrocks inside the mountain cannot keep up with river incising into the soft sediment in the basin. We suggest this over-steepened reach represents a fast incision period 3–4 kyr ago, deepening the canyon for ~35 m within ~700 years. The formation of this reach corresponds to a humid period related to strong Southeast Asian Monsoon influence.
Shiva P. Pudasaini and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 165–189,Short summary
We present the first physics-based general landslide velocity model incorporating internal deformation and external forces. Voellmy–inviscid Burgers' equations are specifications of the novel advective–dissipative system. Unified analytical solutions constitute a new foundation of landslide velocity, providing key information to instantly estimate impact forces and describe breaking waves and folding, revealing that landslide dynamics are architectured by advection and reigned by forcing.
Changbin Lim, Soonmi Hwang, and Jung Lyul Lee
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 151–163,Short summary
Recently, along the east coast of South Korea, seasonal beach erosion has been induced by structures which severely block the supply of sand from the upstream side. This study proposes a coastal solution that can predict the maximum indentation point in downdrift erosion formed downstream of groins by applying a parabolic bay shape equation (PBSE).
Bernd Etzelmüller, Justyna Czekirda, Florence Magnin, Pierre-Allain Duvillard, Ludovic Ravanel, Emanuelle Malet, Andreas Aspaas, Lene Kristensen, Ingrid Skrede, Gudrun D. Majala, Benjamin Jacobs, Johannes Leinauer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Martina Böhme, Reginald Hermanns, Harald Ø. Eriksen, Tom Rune Lauknes, Michael Krautblatter, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 97–129,Short summary
This paper is a multi-authored study documenting the possible existence of permafrost in permanently monitored rockslides in Norway for the first time by combining a multitude of field data, including geophysical surveys in rock walls. The paper discusses the possible role of thermal regime and rockslide movement, and it evaluates the possible impact of atmospheric warming on rockslide dynamics in Norwegian mountains.
Yizhang Wei, Yining Chen, Jufei Qiu, Zeng Zhou, Peng Yao, Qin Jiang, Zheng Gong, Giovanni Coco, Ian Townend, and Changkuan Zhang
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 65–80,Short summary
The barrier tidal basin is increasingly altered by human activity and sea-level rise. These environmental changes probably lead to the emergence or disappearance of islands, yet the effect of rocky islands on the evolution of tidal basins remains poorly investigated. Using numerical experiments, we explore the evolution of tidal basins under varying numbers and locations of islands. This work provides insights for predicting the response of barrier tidal basins in a changing environment.
Marc J. P. Gouw and Marc P. Hijma
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 43–64,Short summary
If you were to navigate an entire delta by boat, you would clearly see that the general characteristics of the channels change throughout the delta. The drivers behind these changes have been studied extensively. Field studies encompassing the entire delta are rare but give important insights into these drivers that can help other researchers. The most important drivers are channel lateral-migration rate, channel-belt longevity, creation of accommodation space and inherited floodplain width.
Yan Zhong, Qiao Liu, Matthew Westoby, Yong Nie, Francesca Pellicciotti, Bo Zhang, Jialun Cai, Guoxiang Liu, Haijun Liao, and Xuyang Lu
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 23–42,Short summary
Slope failures exist in many paraglacial regions and are the main manifestation of the interaction between debris-covered glaciers and slopes. We mapped paraglacial slope failures (PSFs) along the Hailuogou Glacier (HLG), Mt. Gongga, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We argue that the formation, evolution, and current status of these typical PSFs are generally related to glacier history and paraglacial geomorphological adjustments, and influenced by the fluctuation of climate conditions.
Sophie Bodek and Douglas J. Jerolmack
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1531–1543,Short summary
As rocks are transported, they undergo two attrition mechanisms: chipping, shallow cracking at low collision energies; and fragmentation, significant fracture growth from high-energy impacts. We examine the mass and shape evolution of concrete particles in a rotating drum to experimentally delineate the boundary between chipping and fragmentation. By connecting the mechanics of these attrition processes to resulting shape evolution, we can use particle shape to infer past transport conditions.
Jennifer R. Shadrick, Martin D. Hurst, Matthew D. Piggott, Bethany G. Hebditch, Alexander J. Seal, Klaus M. Wilcken, and Dylan H. Rood
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1505–1529,Short summary
Here we use topographic and 10Be concentration data to optimise a coastal evolution model. Cliff retreat rates are calculated for two UK sites for the past 8000 years and, for the first time, highlight a strong link between the rate of sea level rise and long-term cliff retreat rates. This method enables us to study past cliff response to sea level rise and so to greatly improve forecasts of future responses to accelerations in sea level rise that will result from climate change.
Abbott, J. T.: Geology of Precambrian rocks and isotope geochemistry of shear zones in the Big Narrows area, northern Front Range, Colorado, US Geological Survey, Open-File Report OF-70-1, 1970. a
Abbott, J. T.: Geologic map of the Big Narrows quadrangle, Larimer County, Colorado, US Geological Survey, Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1323, 1976. a
Abrahams, E. R., Kaste, J. M., Ouimet, W., and Dethier, D. P.: Asymmetric hillslope erosion following wildfire in Fourmile Canyon, Colorado, Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 43, 2009–2021, 2018. a
Anderson, H. W.: Fire effects on water supply, floods, and sedimentation, in: Proceedings Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, 249–260, 1976. a
Baker, V. and Costa, J.: Flood power, in: Catastrophic Flooding, edited by: Baker, V. and Costa, J., 1–21, Allen and Unwin, 1987. a
Bieger, K., Rathjens, H., Allen, P. M., and Arnold, J. G.: Development and evaluation of bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships for the physiographic regions of the United States, J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc., 51, 842–858, 2015. a
Braddock, W. A., Abbott, J. T., Connor, J. J., and Swann, G. A.: Geologic map of the Poudre Park quadrangle, Larimer County, Colorado, US Geological Survey, Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1620, 1988. a
Brogan, D. J., MacDonald, L. H., Nelson, P. A., and Morgan, J. A.: Geomorphic complexity and sensitivity in channels to fire and floods in mountain catchments, Geomorphology, 337, 53–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2019.03.031, 2019. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v
Carling, P. and Beven, K.: The Hydrology, Sedimentology and Geomorphological Implications of Floods: an Overview, in: Floods: Hydrological, Sedimentological and Geomorphological Implications, John Wiley & Sons New York, 1–9, 1989. a
Cotrufo, M. F., Boot, C. M., Kampf, S., Nelson, P. A., Brogan, D. J., Covino, T., Haddix, M. L., MacDonald, L. H., Rathburn, S., Ryan-Bukett, S., Schmeer, S., and Hall, E.: Redistribution of pyrogenic carbon from hillslopes to stream corridors following a large montane wildfire, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 30, 1348–1355, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GB005467, 2016. a
Elliot, W. J.: WEPP internet interfaces for forest erosion prediction, J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc., 40, 299–309, https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1752-1688.2004.TB01030.X, 2004. a
Filippelli, S.: unpublished data, Colorado State University, 2015. a
Goodrich, D., Canfield, H. E., Burns, I. S., Semmens, D., Miller, S., Hernandez, M., Levick, L., Guertin, D., and Kepner, W.: Rapid post-fire hydrologic watershed assessment using the AGWA GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool, in: Managing Watersheds for Human and Natural Impacts: Engineering, Ecological, and Economic Challenges, edited by: Moglen, G. E., 1–12, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2005. a
Hamilton, E., Horton, J., Rowe, P., and Reimann, L.: Fire-flood sequences on the San Dimas Experimental Forest, Forest Service – U.S. Department of Agriculture, California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Technical Paper No. 6, 1954. a
Henkle, J. E., Wohl, E., and Beckman, N.: Locations of channel heads in the semiarid Colorado Front Range, USA, Geomorphology, 129, 309–319, 2011. a
HPF BAER Report: High Park Fire Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) Report, Department of Transportation, Larimer County, Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Forest Service, 25 pp., 2012. a
Kean, J. W., Staley, D. M., and Cannon, S. H.: In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 116, F04019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF002005, 2011. a
Lane, S. N., Reid, S. C., Westaway, R. M., and Hicks, D. M.: Remotely sensed topographic data for river channel research: the identification, explanation and management of error, in: Spatial Modelling of the Terrestrial Environment, edited by: Kelly, R., Barr, S., and Drake, N., 113–136, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: West Sussex, UK, 2004. a
Larsen, I. J., MacDonald, L. H., Brown, E., Rough, D., Welsh, M. J., Pietraszek, J. H., Libohova, Z., de Dios Benavides-Solorio, J., and Schaffrath, K.: Causes of post-fire runoff and erosion: water repellency, cover, or soil sealing?, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 73, 1393–1407, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2007.0432, 2009. a
Mandlburger, G., Otepka, J., Karel, W., Wagner, W., and Pfeifer, N.: Orientation and processing of airborne laser scanning data (OPALS) – Concept and first results of a comprehensive ALS software, Int. Arch. Photogr. Remote Sens. Spatial Info. Sci., 38, 55–60, 2009. a
McGuire, L. A., Kean, J. W., Staley, D. M., Rengers, F. K., and Wasklewicz, T. A.: Constraining the relative importance of raindrop-and flow-driven sediment transport mechanisms in postwildfire environments and implications for recovery time scales, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 121, 2211–2237, 2016. a
McGuire, L. A., Rengers, F. K., Kean, J. W., and Staley, D. M.: Debris flow initiation by runoff in a recently burned basin: Is grain-by-grain sediment bulking or en masse failure to blame?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 7310–7319, 2017. a
Meyer, G. A., Wells, S. G., and Jull, A. J. T.: Fire and alluvial chronology in Yellowstone National Park: climatic and intrinsic controls on Holocene geomorphic processes, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 107, 1211–1230, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1995)107<1211:FAACIY>2.3.CO;2, 1995. a
Miller, A. J.: Valley morphology and boundary conditions influencing spatial patterns of flood flow, in: Natural and anthropogenic influences in fluvial geomorphology, edited by: Costa, J. E., Miller, A. J., Potter, K. W., and Wilcock, P. R., 57–81, Wiley Online Library, https://doi.org/10.1029/GM089p0057, 1995. a
Montgomery, D. R. and Buffington, J. M.: Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 109, 596–611, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<0596:CRMIMD>2.3.CO;2, 1997. a, b
Moody, J. A. and Martin, D. A.: Wildfire impacts on reservoir sedimentation in the western United States, in: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on River Sedimentation, 1095–1102, Tsinghua University Press China, 2004. a
Morris, S. E. and Moses, T. A.: Forest fire and the natural soil erosion regime in the Colorado Front Range, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr., 77, 245–254, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1987.tb00156.x, 1987. a
Nagel, D., Buffington, J., Parkes, S., Wenger, S., and Goode, J.: A Landscape Scale Valley Confinement Algorithm: Delineating Unconfined Valley Bottoms for Geomorphic, Aquatic, and Riparian Applications, US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service, RMRS-GTR 321, Fort Collins, CO, p. 42, https://doi.org/10.2737/RMRS-GTR-321, 2014. a
Passalacqua, P., Belmont, P., Staley, D. M., Simley, J. D., Arrowsmith, J. R., Bode, C. A., Crosby, C., DeLong, S. B., Glenn, N. F., Kelly, S. A., Lague, D., Sangireddy, H., Schaffrath, K., Tarboton, D. G., Wasklewicz, T., and Wheaton, J. M.: Analyzing high resolution topography for advancing the understanding of mass and energy transfer through landscapes: A review, Earth-Sci. Rev., 148, 174–193, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.05.012, 2015. a, b
Pelletier, J. D. and Orem, C. A.: How do sediment yields from post-wildfire debris-laden flows depend on terrain slope, soil burn severity class, and drainage basin area? Insights from airborne-LiDAR change detection, Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 39, 1822–1832, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3570, 2014. a
Prosser, I. P. and Williams, L.: The effect of wildfire on runoff and erosion in native Eucalyptus forest, Hydrol. Process., 12, 251–265, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199802)12:2<251::AID-HYP574>3.0.CO;2-4, 1998. a
Renard, K. G., Foster, G. R., Weesies, G. A., McCool, D. K., and Yoder, D. C.: Predicting soil erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), US Government Printing Office Washington, DC, 1997. a
Rengers, F., McGuire, L., Kean, J. W., Staley, D. M., and Hobley, D.: Model simulations of flood and debris flow timing in steep catchments after wildfire, Water Resour. Res., 52, 6041–6061, 2016a. a
Robichaud, P. R., Beyers, J. L., and Neary, D. G.: Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments, USDA Forest Service, RMRS-GTR-63, Fort Collins, CO, 2000. a
Schumm, S. A.: Geomorphic thresholds and complex response of drainage systems, Fluv. Geomor., 6, 69–85, 1973. a
Stone, B.: Mapping burn severity, pine beetle infestation, and their interaction at the High Park Fire, Master's thesis, Graduate Degree Program in Ecology. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 90 pp., 2015. a
Surian, N., Righini, M., Lucía, A., Nardi, L., Amponsah, W., Benvenuti, M., Borga, M., Cavalli, M., Comiti, F., Marchi, L., Rinaldi, M., and Viero, A.: Channel response to extreme floods: insights on controlling factors from six mountain rivers in northern Apennines, Italy, Geomorphology, 272, 78–91, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.02.002, 2016. a
Swanson, F. J.: Fire and geomorphic processes, in: Fire Regime and Ecosystem Properties, edited by: Mooney, H., Bonnicksen, T., Christensen, N., Lotan, J., and Reiners, W., 401–444, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report WO-26, 1981. a
Tulldahl, H. M. and Larsson, H.: Lidar on small UAV for 3D mapping, in: Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies, and Applications VIII; and Military Applications in Hyperspectral Imaging and High Spatial Resolution Sensing II, International Society for Optics and Photonics, Amsterdam, Netherlands, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2068448, 2014. a
Vericat, D., Wheaton, J. M., and Brasington, J.: Revisiting the Morphological Approach: Opportunities and Challenges with Repeat High-Resolution Topography, in: Gravel-Bed Rivers: Process and Disasters, 121–155, John Wiley & Sons, 2017. a
We used high-resolution topography collected over 4 years to investigate how two watersheds in Colorado responded to the June 2012 High Park Fire and an extreme flood in September 2013. After the fire, sediment was eroded from the hillslopes and deposited in valley bottoms, and the large flood eroded much of this deposited sediment. Patterns of erosion and deposition were related to landscape characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall, which may inform future post-fire treatment strategies.
We used high-resolution topography collected over 4 years to investigate how two watersheds in...